Laman sex-Stress, sex, and motivated behaviors.

E-mail address: bctrainor ucdavis. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Stress is a major risk factor for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and development of substance use disorder. Social defeat stress is a commonly used method to induce stress in an ethologically relevant way but has only recently begun to be used in female rodents. Using these new female models, recent studies have examined how social defeat stress affects males and females differently at the behavioral, circuit, and molecular levels.

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Today's beds are thought of as bastions of privacy. To this day Laman sex subject does not have a formal curriculum. GreenbergMichael Q. Lactating rat dams are used to induce defeat in female rats Holly et al. Prostitution is now illegal in Canada.

Electric insertion. WHAT IS SOCIAL DEFEAT STRESS?

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Edisi: Edisi-edisi yang ada Indonesia. Ikuti topik Papua stunting Jokowi. Artikel Kontributor Tautan Artikel-artikel mengenai Sex Menampilkan 1 - 20 dari artikel For millennia, theologians taught that the sole purpose of sex was reproductive. How embryos develop, evolution and sexual pleasure all help explain why men have nipples.

Today's beds are thought of as bastions of privacy. But not long ago, they were the perches from which kings ruled and places where travelers hunkered down with complete strangers. People with sexual fetishes aren't dangerous; nor are their desires a sign of mental illness. Fetishism can be part of a healthy relationship — so it's time to lose the stigma. Scholars weigh in on what sex education should look like for Indonesian schools. To this day the subject does not have a formal curriculum.

An increasing demand for sex robots is concerning, as there are ethical concerns about a possible related increase in gender-based violence. There's a strand of radical feminist thought that claims porn causes misogyny. So four researchers decided to test this idea — and descended on a porn expo to study the beliefs of the male attendees. Parkinson's disease is twice as common in men than in women. A sex gene called SRY, found only in men, could go some way to explaining this — and might pave the way for potential treatments.

A woman with a disability has won the right to have a sex therapist funded under the NDIS. This sets a positive precedent, but the NDIS should go further and fund sex worker services, too. New research looked closely at the lives of thousands of 14 year olds to discover that fewer are having oral sex and intercourse than previous generations.

As North Americans celebrate Pride this summer, we should take it as a reminder of our colourful sexual diversity, and also the infinite ways to have sex, with nothing unnatural with any of them. Global attitudes to gender and sexual diversity are changing. Some embrace the diversity; others push back.

From meddling mothers to feeding ground excitement, their sex lives are unique in the animal world. How do we get get aroused? And how can this happen without noticing it? Do the sounds we make during sex mean anything? Could rats help us figure these questions out?

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E-mail address: bctrainor ucdavis. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Stress is a major risk factor for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and development of substance use disorder. Social defeat stress is a commonly used method to induce stress in an ethologically relevant way but has only recently begun to be used in female rodents.

Using these new female models, recent studies have examined how social defeat stress affects males and females differently at the behavioral, circuit, and molecular levels. Stress is a major risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. These disorders are frequently comorbid with substance use disorder Kessler et al.

However, the development of social defeat stress protocols in female rats, hamsters, and California mice Peromyscus californicus has created new opportunities to consider sex differences with respect to how stress impacts the brain.

Although many neurobiological systems are affected by defeat stress Buwalda et al. Additionally, recent data have highlighted the importance of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis BNST as a critical nucleus modulating interaction among stress, motivation, and social behavior.

Social defeat is commonly used as an ethologically relevant stressor in rodents. Focal animals are randomly assigned to stress or control conditions, which controls for intrinsic differences in aggressive behavior and competitive ability. Social defeat induces behavioral phenotypes related to depression and anxiety such as social withdrawal, submissive behavior, or anhedonia. There is a significant variability in sensitivity to social defeat across species. In Syrian hamsters Mesocricetus auratus , a male that experiences a single episode of defeat will show submissive behaviors when faced with a smaller, nonaggressive intruder within its own home cage Cooper et al.

The normal response in this context is aggressive behavior, so this inappropriate submissive behavior has been referred to as conditioned defeat Jasnow and Huhman, Similar changes are observed after multiple episodes of defeat Huhman et al.

Repeated episodes of defeat add a different dimension both in total amount of stress experienced and in predictability. For example, after a short physical confrontation, a focal mouse is separated from the resident by a clear, perforated divider placed in a shared home cage. Recently, a witness model of defeat was developed to separate the physical and psychological impacts of defeat stress Sial et al.

A mouse Warren et al. Levels of aggression experienced during social defeat can vary between males and females of the same species, an important consideration when making comparisons between sexes. The California mouse is a monogamous species in which females defend territories with males Ribble and Salvioni, Social defeat in California mice has been optimized so that, on average, males and females are exposed to the same number of aggressive interactions across three episodes of defeat Trainor et al.

Lactating rat dams are used to induce defeat in female rats Holly et al. Social withdrawal is a common symptom of depression in humans, and this is modeled in rodents with the social interaction test.

Remarkably, this basic result has been replicated in different laboratories around the world Berton et al. This persistent phenotype resembles behavioral changes associated with depression and anxiety, which can linger for years. Finally, reduced social interaction behavior is reversed with chronic but not with acute antidepressant treatment Kudryavtseva et al. Examining sex differences in social interaction in response to defeat stress is a useful technique to study sex differences in rodent models of depression and anxiety.

Male and female California mice exhibit different behavioral phenotypes in response to social defeat stress. Stressed females also show decreased biting and chasing and increased attack latency in the resident—intruder test Steinman et al.

Social interaction behavior in male and female California mice 4 weeks after social defeat. In the apparatus used for testing A , the interaction zone is indicated by a blue box, and the corner zones are indicated by red boxes. There were no significant differences when mice were tested with an empty cage B. Females but not males exposed to social defeat show reduced social interaction behavior with a novel mouse C.

Reprinted from Trainor et al. Stressed males exhibit decreased investigation time of novel male urine in the habituation—dishabituation test Trainor et al. In contrast to social interaction testing, these tests are conducted in the home cage, suggesting that the environment is a critical factor modulating the effect of defeat on behavior.

Previous winning experience has no effect on aggressive behavior in a novel environment. Defeat reduces aggression in male crickets, and this effect is blocked when a male is transferred to a new environment Hofmann and Stevenson, Both male California mice and crickets must maintain a territory to reproduce. The reported effects of social defeat in Syrian hamsters are stronger in males than in females Huhman et al.

This phenomenon is studied primarily through conditioned defeat testing. Dominant male hamsters show less conditioned defeat than subordinates, but controls show an intermediate amount of submissive and defensive behavior and do not differ significantly from either dominants or subordinates Morrison et al. In these studies, hamsters are allowed to establish dominance status on their own. Thus, resilience to defeat could be mediated by intrinsic factors, the experience of establishing dominance status, or both.

In female hamsters, social defeat stress does not have the same impact on conditioned defeat. Curiously, nondefeated females display normal territorial aggression without regard to hormonal status Solomon et al. Aggressive interactions observed among male hamsters involved two males competing for a female in estrus. However, aggressive interactions among females are thought to occur primarily to defend the burrow, stored food, or pups.

This might result in selection for enhanced aggression in females. The link between increased aggression and reduced susceptibility to social stress has also been observed in male California mice. In Wistar Lukas et al. To date, no study has documented the effects of defeat stress on female social interaction behavior in these species. For rats, the lactating dam model could be used to assess the impact of defeat on female social behavior. For mice, the witness defeat model Sial et al.

Drug abuse is affected by a combination of behavioral processes, including motivation to obtain the drug incentive salience and the rewarding properties of the drug hedonic impact.

It is significant that motivation to obtain a drug can be dissociated from the rewarding properties of the drug Berridge et al. Therefore, it is important to disentangle these components in studies examining neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction. A second approach to examine the rewarding properties of a drug is conditioned place preference CPP , in which animals are conditioned to associate the properties of the drug with a specific environment Bardo and Bevins, Social defeat stress has been shown to affect both motivation to obtain drugs and the rewarding properties.

In contrast, continued exposure to defeat over a longer period of about 1 month suppresses cocaine administration Miczek et al. This suggests that continuous, uncontrollable exposure to defeat may be triggering anhedonia. To measure a change in the value of a reward such as cocaine, CPP assays have proved useful. Finally, social defeat facilitates the reinstatement of cocaine CPP after extinction Land et al. Similarly, defeat was found to increase the total number of cocaine infusions in both male and female rats given unlimited access to cocaine Holly et al.

To the best of our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of social defeat on place preference, extinction, or reinstatement in female rodents. Drugs of abuse such as cocaine acutely engage the mesolimbic dopamine system, which, in turn, is an important regulator of social behaviors. Not surprisingly, the mesolimbic dopamine system is strongly impacted by social defeat stress. In susceptible mice exposed to defeat, the average frequency of neuronal firing increases to about 3.

During episodes of social defeat, the mesolimbic dopamine system is activated. For example, in male rats, dopamine release into the NAc is increased during episodes of defeat Tidey and Miczek, This was an early clue that dopamine release in the NAc was not a simple reward signal. The degree to which VTA dopamine neurons respond to social defeat is topographically organized.

Finally, dopamine in the NAc appears to be critical for the acquisition and expression of conditioned defeat in male hamsters. During a training period, hamsters experienced defeat from a resident aggressor, and on the next day focal hamsters were tested in a resident—intruder test in which a nonaggressive intruder was placed into the home cage Gray et al.

Chaudhury et al. Subthreshold defeat plus phasic optical stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons either during defeat or during social interaction induced social withdrawal Chaudhury et al. Phasic activation of these same neurons in nondefeated controls had no effect, as did tonic activation in mice assigned to subthreshold defeat. Another group of mice was assigned to chronic social defeat 10 days , which induces phasic firing of VTA dopamine neurons and social withdrawal. Optical inhibition of VTA dopamine neurons projecting to the NAc restored normal levels of social interaction Chaudhury et al.

Berton et al. Viral expression of Cre in VTA dopamine neurons of floxed Bdnf mice blocked the development of social withdrawal after social defeat Berton et al. In contrast, resilience is facilitated by inhibiting activity of VTA dopamine neurons. For example, changes in ion channel expression induced by repeated optical stimulation of the VTA can decrease firing rate and increase resilience to defeat stress Friedman et al.

Campi et al. Also, after a cocaine challenge, susceptible female rats had significantly higher dopamine and serotonin release in the NAc compared with resilient females Shimamoto et al.

Reprinted from Holly et al. An analysis of D1 receptor gene expression in the NAc and the prefrontal cortex showed no effects of defeat in male or female California mice Campi et al. In addition, both stressed males and females had increased levels of dopamine metabolites Campi et al.

Medium spiny neurons that express D1 receptors coexpress dynorphin, the primary endogenous ligand for KOR Hara et al. KORs are important modulators of other neurotransmitters. For example, KOR activation enhances serotonin reuptake Schindler et al. Exciting recent research has been initiated to investigate how gene regulation within the NAc underlies the effect of stress on motivated behaviors in males and females. Hodes et al. One of the genes that was upregulated in females only after SCVS was DNA methyltransferase 3a Dnmt3a , which points to epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in sex differences.

In the NAc, although there are some transcriptional similarities between Dnmt3a knockout females i. Corroborating the Dnmt3a data in mice, in human NAc, Dnmt3a is elevated in both male and female patients with depression and shows a trend to decrease with treatment with antidepressants Hodes et al.

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