Tuberculosis latin name-Tuberculosis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis. This coating makes the cells impervious to Gram staining , and as a result, M. The physiology of M. Primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system , it infects the lungs. The M.

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

Short afterwards, in Italian health law, in particular in an edict issued by the Republic of Lucca inthere is the first official reference to the infectious nature of the disease [ 31 ]. Sievert, K. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. The complete sequence Mom teaching daughter masturbating annotation of the M. These multiple phenotypes Tuberculosid that LAM functions to downmodulate host responses to M. Latkn, it did not persist in the lungs and livers Tubrculosis infected mice, growing initially and being cleared after days, respectively, showing a delayed PER phenotype. This disease peaked in Europe in the first half of the Tuberculosis latin name century, and it Tuberculosis latin name estimated that one-quarter Europeans died of TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis [1]. Throughout the centuries, doctors and scientists have described TB in its many forms and sought to understand the origins of the disease, in order to use this information for better diagnoses, prevention, and cures. The mutant grows poorly in mouse macrophages and is severely attenuated in Tuberculosis latin name organs, where it has an SGIV phenotype.

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This content does not have an English version. Later, the Romans applied the Latin word consumere, to eat up or to devour, to the malady. Retrieved 9 June Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. Epidemiology of chronic disease: global perspectives. Fogel [] [] [] [] and Angus Deaton latih have greatly contributed to the recent reappreciation of the McKeown thesis. The pasteurization of Webelez anal and other dairy products has been important in preventing the Tuberculosis latin name of the disease to humans. Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 13 October Archived from the original on 10 September These include:. Travelers' vaccines 2nd ed. Economist Intelligence Unit. An example of this is Tuberculosis, caused by Tuberculosis latin name tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis TB , one of the oldest known human diseases.

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  • The disease has existed throughout human experience and had other names for millennia before scientific medicine renamed it with a New Latin term in the midth century s ; in English it was called consumption because of the wasting away that consumed health and seemed even to consume flesh in some cases for example, causing fistulas and tissue breakdown.

Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. As of one-quarter of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. General signs and symptoms include fever, chills , night sweats, loss of appetite , weight loss, and fatigue.

In nature, the bacterium can grow only within the cells of a host organism, but M. Using histological stains on expectorated samples from phlegm also called "sputum" , scientists can identify MTB under a microscope. Since MTB retains certain stains even after being treated with acidic solution, it is classified as an acid-fast bacillus.

The M. Other known pathogenic mycobacteria include M. The latter two species are classified as " nontuberculous mycobacteria " NTM.

Tuberculosis is closely linked to both overcrowding and malnutrition , making it one of the principal diseases of poverty. Chronic lung disease is another significant risk factor. Silicosis increases the risk about fold. Other disease states can also increase the risk of developing tuberculosis. These include alcoholism [14] and diabetes mellitus three-fold increase. Genetic susceptibility also exists, [46] for which the overall importance remains undefined. When people with active pulmonary TB cough, sneeze, speak, sing, or spit, they expel infectious aerosol droplets 0.

A single sneeze can release up to 40, droplets. TB infection begins when the mycobacteria reach the alveolar air sacs of the lungs, where they invade and replicate within endosomes of alveolar macrophages. During this process, the bacterium is enveloped by the macrophage and stored temporarily in a membrane-bound vesicle called a phagosome. The phagosome then combines with a lysosome to create a phagolysosome. In the phagolysosome, the cell attempts to use reactive oxygen species and acid to kill the bacterium.

However, M. The primary site of infection in the lungs, known as the " Ghon focus ", is generally located in either the upper part of the lower lobe, or the lower part of the upper lobe. This is known as a Simon focus and is typically found in the top of the lung. Tuberculosis is classified as one of the granulomatous inflammatory diseases. Macrophages , T lymphocytes , B lymphocytes , and fibroblasts aggregate to form granulomas, with lymphocytes surrounding the infected macrophages.

When other macrophages attack the infected macrophage, they fuse together to form a giant multinucleated cell in the alveolar lumen. The granuloma may prevent dissemination of the mycobacteria and provide a local environment for interaction of cells of the immune system.

Macrophages and dendritic cells in the granulomas are unable to present antigen to lymphocytes; thus the immune response is suppressed. Another feature of the granulomas is the development of abnormal cell death necrosis in the center of tubercles. To the naked eye, this has the texture of soft, white cheese and is termed caseous necrosis. If TB bacteria gain entry to the blood stream from an area of damaged tissue, they can spread throughout the body and set up many foci of infection, all appearing as tiny, white tubercles in the tissues.

In many people, the infection waxes and wanes. Tissue destruction and necrosis are often balanced by healing and fibrosis. During active disease, some of these cavities are joined to the air passages bronchi and this material can be coughed up.

It contains living bacteria, and thus can spread the infection. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics kills bacteria and allows healing to take place. Upon cure, affected areas are eventually replaced by scar tissue. Diagnosing active tuberculosis based only on signs and symptoms is difficult, [66] as is diagnosing the disease in those who have a weakened immune system.

A definitive diagnosis of TB is made by identifying M. However, the difficult culture process for this slow-growing organism can take two to six weeks for blood or sputum culture. Nucleic acid amplification tests and adenosine deaminase testing may allow rapid diagnosis of TB. The Mantoux tuberculin skin test is often used to screen people at high risk for TB.

Tuberculosis prevention and control efforts rely primarily on the vaccination of infants and the detection and appropriate treatment of active cases. Treatment of TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Effective TB treatment is difficult, due to the unusual structure and chemical composition of the mycobacterial cell wall, which hinders the entry of drugs and makes many antibiotics ineffective.

Latent TB is treated with either isoniazid alone, or a combination of isoniazid with either rifampicin or rifapentine.

Active TB disease is best treated with combinations of several antibiotics to reduce the risk of the bacteria developing antibiotic resistance. If tuberculosis recurs, testing to determine which antibiotics it is sensitive to is important before determining treatment. Directly observed therapy , i. Primary resistance occurs when a person becomes infected with a resistant strain of TB. A person with fully susceptible MTB may develop secondary acquired resistance during therapy because of inadequate treatment, not taking the prescribed regimen appropriately lack of compliance , or using low-quality medication.

Progression from TB infection to overt TB disease occurs when the bacilli overcome the immune system defenses and begin to multiply. The risk of reactivation increases with immunosuppression, such as that caused by infection with HIV. In people coinfected with M. Roughly one-quarter of the world's population has been infected with M. In , the country with the highest estimated incidence rate of TB was Swaziland , with 1, cases per , people.

India had the largest total incidence, with an estimated 2. Rates per , people in different areas of the world were: globally , Africa , the Americas 36, Eastern Mediterranean , Europe 63, Southeast Asia , and Western Pacific in The rate of TB varies with age.

In Africa, it primarily affects adolescents and young adults. The routine use of rifabutin instead of rifampicin in HIV-positive people with tuberculosis is of unclear benefit as of [update]. Tuberculosis has existed since antiquity. Both strains of the tuberculosis bacteria share a common ancestor, which could have infected humans even before the Neolithic Revolution. Before the Industrial Revolution , folklore often associated tuberculosis with vampires.

When one member of a family died from the disease, the other infected members would lose their health slowly. People believed this was caused by the original person with TB draining the life from the other family members. Although Richard Morton established the pulmonary form associated with tubercles as a pathology in , [] [] due to the variety of its symptoms, TB was not identified as a single disease until the s.

John Croghan, the owner of Mammoth Cave in Kentucky from onwards, brought a number of people with tuberculosis into the cave in the hope of curing the disease with the constant temperature and purity of the cave air; each died within a year.

Robert Koch identified and described the bacillus causing tuberculosis, M. During the first half of the s the risk of transmission from this source was dramatically reduced after the application of the pasteurization process. Koch announced a glycerine extract of the tubercle bacilli as a "remedy" for tuberculosis in , calling it "tuberculin".

While it was not effective, it was later successfully adapted as a screening test for the presence of pre-symptomatic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis caused widespread public concern in the 19th and early 20th centuries as the disease became common among the urban poor. In one in four deaths in England was due to "consumption". By , TB still caused one in six deaths in France. Prior to the introduction of this medication, the only treatment was surgical intervention, including the " pneumothorax technique", which involved collapsing an infected lung to "rest" it and to allow tuberculous lesions to heal.

It involves the removal of infected chest cavities "bullae" in the lungs to reduce the number of bacteria and to increase exposure of the remaining bacteria to antibiotics in the bloodstream. The subsequent resurgence of tuberculosis resulted in the declaration of a global health emergency by the World Health Organization WHO in Tuberculosis has been known by many names from the technical to the familiar.

The Latin root "con" meaning "completely" is linked to "sumere" meaning "to take up from under. Tuberculosis was for centuries associated with poetic and artistic qualities among those infected, and was also known as "the romantic disease". A widespread belief was that tuberculosis assisted artistic talent.

Tuberculosis formed an often-reused theme in literature , as in Thomas Mann 's The Magic Mountain , set in a sanatorium ; [] in music , as in Van Morrison 's song " T. Mary's starring Ingrid Bergman as a nun with tuberculosis. India had the highest total number of TB cases worldwide in , in part due to poor disease management within the private and public health care sector.

A the EIU -healthcare report finds there is a need to address apathy and urges for increased funding. The report cites among others Lucica Ditui "[TB] is like an orphan. It has been neglected even in countries with a high burden and often forgotten by donors and those investing in health interventions.

Slow progress has led to frustration, expressed by the executive director of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria — Mark Dybul: "we have the tools to end TB as a pandemic and public health threat on the planet, but we are not doing it. Commercial treatment providers may at times overprescribe second-line drugs as well as supplementary treatment, promoting demands for further regulations.

Slow progress in preventing the disease may in part be due to stigma associated with TB. Stigma towards TB may result in delays in seeking treatment, [] lower treatment compliance, and family members keeping cause of death secret [] — allowing the disease to spread further.

One way to decrease stigma may be through the promotion of "TB clubs", where those infected may share experiences and offer support, or through counseling. One approach involves adding a subunit vaccine to BCG, while the other strategy is attempting to create new and better live vaccines.

To encourage further discovery, researchers and policymakers are promoting new economic models of vaccine development as of , including prizes, tax incentives, and advance market commitments. A number of medications are being studied as of for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, including bedaquiline and delamanid.

Mycobacteria infect many different animals, including birds, [] rodents, [] and reptiles. As of [update] , tuberculosis appears to be widespread among captive elephants in the US.

Treatment of TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria. The first references to tuberculosis in non-European civilization is found in the Vedas. Cambridge University Press. Medical Section of the American Lung Association". Macrophages , T lymphocytes , B lymphocytes , and fibroblasts aggregate to form granulomas, with lymphocytes surrounding the infected macrophages. Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Tuberculosis What is the common and scientific name for tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name

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Tuberculosis | Definition of Tuberculosis at cherrycitykitties.com

Schmidt had arrived in California after his family had been wiped out by tuberculosis in his home state of Rhode Island. But when Tarkhan got sick with tuberculosis and was ushered out, the government gave him no pension or medical assistance.

That in the bacilli we have … the actual infective cause of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis was all his, and the greater glory of a cure, of a remedy, was his destiny. Diseases, like tuberculosis and cancer, that run a long but assuredly fatal course, usually terminate unexpectedly. I refer to the city home, the city hospital, the poor houses, the tuberculosis camp and outdoor relief. Something like forty of the best books on health, and on the prevention and cure of tuberculosis , are included.

Goats' milk is generally claimed to be free at all times from germs of tuberculosis. There can be no doubt that the ravages of tuberculosis could be materially arrested by compliance with the laws of hygiene.

An infectious disease caused by bacteria that mainly attack the lungs. Tuberculosis is treated with combinations of antibiotics and is no longer considered a major health problem in industrialized countries.

It was formerly called consumption. Nearby words tuberculofibroid , tuberculoid , tuberculoid leprosy , tuberculoma , tuberculose , tuberculosis , tuberculosis cutis indurativa , tuberculosis cutis verrucosa , tuberculosis vaccine , tuberculostatic , tuberculous.

Also called TB for defs 1, 2. Examples from the Web for tuberculosis Schmidt had arrived in California after his family had been wiped out by tuberculosis in his home state of Rhode Island. What eight million women want Rheta Childe Dorr. Industrial Cuba Robert P. Word Origin for tuberculosis C from New Latin; see tubercle , -osis. An infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the tubercle bacillus and characterized by the formation of tubercles on the lungs and other tissues of the body, often developing long after the initial infection.

Tuberculosis of the lungs, characterized by the coughing up of mucus and sputum, fever, weight loss, and chest pain. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is transmitted through inhalation and is characterized by cough, fever, shortness of breath, weight loss, and the appearance of inflammatory substances and tubercles in the lungs.

Although the incidence of the disease has declined since the introduction of antibiotic treatment in the 's, it is still a major public-health problem throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa.

All rights reserved. Note Years ago, tuberculosis consumption was a major killer; it often figures in literature and drama. Note In recent years, the incidence of tuberculosis has been on the increase in the United States, particularly in large cities, mainly because the strains of the bacterium have developed resistance to antibiotics.

Tuberculosis latin name

Tuberculosis latin name