Adult develpment and aging in psychology-PSYCHOLOGY OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT AND AGING – Capital Community College

Community College of Rhode Island. This course is an intensive study of human growth and development in the adult years. Topics include adult personality, as affected by both continuity and changes; mental and physical performance of adults; participation in social roles such as spouse, parent, worker and retiree; physiological aspects of aging and recent research in gerontology. Raymond Kilduff, Ph. Lincoln Campus Warwick Campus

Adult develpment and aging in psychology

Adult develpment and aging in psychology

Adult develpment and aging in psychology

Older adults represent a significant proportion of the population, and this proportion is expected to increase with time. However, by the time people reach puberty, Piaget believed that they had progressed as far as they could in their complexity of thinking. A conception of adult development. Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal afing. Those who argue for the continuous approach state that development occurs in succession with each experience or life event building on the previous event to create a whole person. Pragmatic intelligence, knowledge acquired through culture and experience, remains relatively stable with age. Acta Psychologica, 26, Primary mental abilities are independent groups of factors that contribute to intelligent behavior and include word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial visualization, number facility, associative Adult develpment and aging in psychology, reasoning, and perceptual speed.

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 5 London: W. American Psychological Association. Child and Adolescent Development M. Behavior differences in drivers with attention Adult develpment and aging in psychology hyperactivity disorder: The driving behavior questionnaire. American Psychologist, 41, 3— The psychometric approach assesses intelligence based on scores on standardized tests such as the Wechsler Psycnology Intelligence Latin kings nelson millet and Stanford Binet for children. Neurofibrillary tangles, paired helical filaments containing over-phosphorylated tau proteinare located within the nerve cell. Yerika will be graduating with Honors Adult develpment and aging in psychology the Major this semester and moving on to complete her PhD in Neuroscience at the […]. Stability and change in adult intelligence: II. Neuroscience 7, — Older adults can use both internal and external resources to help cope with these changes. Languages Add links.

Therefore, it is no surprise that the vast majority of thinking, philosophizing, and researching on human development centered on these two areas.

  • The Adult Development and Aging focus of the Human Development graduate program is distinguished by world-renowned faculty.
  • The lab capped off the day by surprising Dr.
  • Adult development encompasses the changes that occur in biological and psychological domains of human life from the end of adolescence until the end of one's life.
  • .

Adult development encompasses the changes that occur in biological and psychological domains of human life from the end of adolescence until the end of one's life. These changes may be gradual or rapid, and can reflect positive, negative, or no change from previous levels of functioning.

Changes occur at the cellular level and are partially explained by biological theories of adult development and aging. The concept of adulthood has legal and socio-cultural definitions.

The legal definition of an adult is a person who has reached the age at which they are considered responsible for their own actions, and therefore legally accountable for them. The socio-cultural definition of being an adult is based on what a culture normatively views as being the required criteria for adulthood, which in turn influences the life of individuals within that culture.

This may or may not coincide with the legal definition. Biomedical theories hold that one can age successfully by caring for physical health and minimizing loss in function, whereas psychosocial theories posit that capitalizing upon social and cognitive resources, such as a positive attitude or social support from neighbors and friends, is key to aging successfully.

Her long life can be attributed to her genetics both parents lived into their 80s and her active lifestyle and optimistic [ citation needed ] attitude. She enjoyed many hobbies and physical activities and believed that laughter contributed to her longevity. She poured olive oil on all of her food and skin, which she believed also contributed to her long life and youthful appearance.

Changes in adulthood have been described by a number of theories and metatheories, which serve as framework for adult development research. Life span development can be defined as age-relating experiences that occur from birth to the entirety of a human's life.

According to this theory, life span development has multiple trajectories positive, negative, stable and causes biological, psychological, social, and cultural.

Individual variation is a hallmark of this theory — not all individuals develop and age at the same rate and in the same manner. He was trained in psychoanalysis and was highly influenced by Freud, but unlike Freud, Erikson believed that social interaction is very important to the individual's psychosocial development. It offers a standard method of examining the universal pattern of development. Daniel Levinson 's theory is a set of psychosocial 'seasons' through which adults must pass as they move through early adulthood and midlife.

Each of these seasons is created by the challenges of building or maintaining a life structure, by the social norms that apply to particular age groups, particularly in relation to relationships and career.

There are a variety of biopsychosocial meta-models, but all entail a commitment to the following four premises:. Physical development in midlife and beyond include changes at the biological level senescence and larger organ and musculo-skeletal levels. Sensory changes and degeneration begin to be common in midlife.

Degeneration can include the break down of muscle, bones and joints, leading to physical ailments such as sarcopenia or arthritis. At the sensory level, changes occur to vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell, and taste. Two common sensory changes that begin in midlife include our ability to see close objects and our ability to hear high pitches. In the past 30 years, hearing impairment has doubled. Olfaction can co-occur with changes in sense of taste.

Losses to the sense of touch are usually noticed when there is a decline in the ability to detect a vibratory stimulus. The ability to feel painful stimuli is usually preserved in aging, but the process of decline for touch is accelerated in those with diabetes. Physical deterioration to the body begins to increase in midlife and late life, and includes degeneration of muscle, bones, and joints. Sarcopenia , a normal developmental change, is the degeneration of muscle mass, which includes both strength and quality.

The prevalence of sarcopenia increases as people age and is associated with the increased likelihood of disability and restricted independence among elderly people. Approaches to preventing and treating sarcopenia are being explored by researchers. A specific preventative approach includes progressive resistance training, which is safe and effective for the elderly. Developmental changes to various organs and organ systems occur throughout life. In men, hormonal changes also affect their reproductive and sexual physiology, but these changes are not as extreme as those experienced by women.

As adult bodies undergo a variety of physical changes that cause health to decline, a higher risk of contracting a variety of illnesses, both physical and mental, is possible. Scientists have made a distinctive connection between aging and cancer.

It has been shown that the majority of cancer cases occur in those over 50 years of age. This may be due to the decline in strength of the immune system as one ages or co existing conditions. There a variety of symptoms associated with cancer, commonly growths or tumors may be indicators of cancer. Radiation, chemotherapy, and in some cases, surgery, is used to treat the cancer. Although there are a variety of types of arthritis they all include very similar symptoms: aching joints, stiff joints, continued joint pain, and problems moving joints.

It has been found that older age does increase the risk factor of contracting a cardiovascular disease. Hypertension and high cholesterol have also been found to increase the likelihood of acquiring a cardiovascular disease, which are also commonly found in older adults. Cardiovascular diseases include a variety of heart conditions that may induce a heart attack or other heart-related problems. Healthy eating, exercise, and avoiding smoking are usually used to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Aging also changes how the immune system reacts to infection, making new infections harder to detect and attack. Essentially, the immune system has a higher chance of being compromised the older one gets.

New neurons are constantly formed from stem cells in parts of the adult brain throughout adulthood, a process called adult neurogenesis. Research shows that thousands of new neurons are produced in the hippocampus every day. Evidence suggests that the brain changes in response to diet, exercise, social environment, stress and toxin intake.

These same external factors also influence genetic expression throughout adult life - a phenomenon known as genetic plasticity. Dementia is characterized by persistent, multiple cognitive deficits in the domains including, but not limited to, memory, language, and visuospatial skills and can result from central nervous system dysfunction.

Alzheimer's disease AD was discovered in by Dr. Alois Alzheimer , a German neuropathologist and psychiatrist. Physiological abnormalities associated with AD include neurofibrillary plaques and tangles.

Neuritic plaques, that target the outer regions of the cortex, consist of withering neuronal material from a protein, amyloid-beta. Neurofibrillary tangles, paired helical filaments containing over-phosphorylated tau protein , are located within the nerve cell.

Early symptoms of AD include difficulty remembering names and events, while later symptoms include impaired judgment, disorientation, confusion, behavior changes, and difficulty speaking, swallowing, and walking.

After initial diagnosis, a person with AD can live, on average, an additional 3 to 10 years with the disease. Huntington's disease HD named after George Huntington is a disorder that is caused by an inherited defect in a single gene on chromosome 4 , resulting in a progressive loss of mental faculties and physical control. Current estimates claim that 1 in 10, Americans have HD, however, 1 in , are at-risk of inheriting it from a parent.

Parkinson's disease PD was first described by James Parkinson in It typically affects people over the age of PD is related to damaged nerve cells that produce dopamine. Surgery pallidotomy , thalamotomy is often viewed as the last viable option. Older adults represent a significant proportion of the population, and this proportion is expected to increase with time. The prevalence of suicide among older adults is higher than in any other age group. Research indicates that higher levels of exercise can decrease the likelihood of depression in older adults even after taking into consideration factors such as chronic conditions, body mass index, and social relationships.

Anxiety is a relatively uncommon diagnosis in older adults and it difficult to determine its prevalence. However, in the Epidemiological Catchment Area Project, researchers found that 6-month prevalence rates for anxiety disorders were lowest for the 65 years of age and older cohort.

A recent study found that the prevalence of general anxiety disorder GAD in adults aged 55 or older in the United States was The impact of mental disorders such as schizophrenia , delusional disorders, paraphrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder in adulthood is largely mediated by the environmental context.

Those in hospitals and nursing homes differ in risk for a multitude of disorders in comparison to community-dwelling older adults. Exercising four to six times a week for thirty to sixty minutes has physical and cognitive effects such as lowering blood sugar and increasing neural plasticity. Diets containing foods with calcium, fiber, and potassium are especially important for good health while eliminating foods with high sodium or fat content. A well-balanced diet can increase resistance to disease and improve management of chronic health problems thus making nutrition an important factor for health and well-being in adulthood.

Mental stimulation and optimism are vital to health and well-being in late adulthood. Cognitive, physical, and social losses, as well as gains, are to be expected throughout the lifespan. Older adults typically self-report having a higher sense of well-being than their younger counterparts because of their emotional self-regulation. Researchers use Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory to explain how adults compensate for changes to their mental and physical abilities, as well as their social realities.

Older adults can use both internal and external resources to help cope with these changes. The loss of loved ones and ensuing grief and bereavement are inevitable parts of life. Positive coping strategies are used when faced with emotional crises, as well as when coping with everyday mental and physical losses.

Personality change and stability occur in adulthood. For example, self-confidence, warmth, self-control, and emotional stability increase with age, whereas neuroticism and openness to experience tend to decline with age.

Two types of statistics are used to classify personality change over the life span. The plaster hypothesis refers to personality traits tending to stabilize by age Research on the Big 5 Personality traits include a decrease in openness and extraversion in adulthood; an increase of agreeableness with age; peak conscientiousness in middle age; and a decrease of neuroticism late in life. According to the lifespan approach, intelligence is a multidimensional and multidirectional construct characterized by plasticity and interindividual variability.

Pragmatic intelligence, knowledge acquired through culture and experience, remains relatively stable with age. The psychometric approach assesses intelligence based on scores on standardized tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Stanford Binet for children. Primary mental abilities are independent groups of factors that contribute to intelligent behavior and include word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial visualization, number facility, associative memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed.

Fluid intelligence declines steadily in adulthood while crystallized intelligence increases and remains fairly stable with age until very late in life. A combination of friendships and family are the support system for many individuals and an integral part of their lives from young adulthood to old age. As adults age, their children often feel a sense of filial obligation, in which they feel obligated to care for their parents. This is particularly prominent in Asian cultures. Marital satisfaction remains high in older couples, oftentimes increasing shortly after retirement.

Chapter 5- where people live: Person-environment interactions. Early symptoms of AD include difficulty remembering names and events, while later symptoms include impaired judgment, disorientation, confusion, behavior changes, and difficulty speaking, swallowing, and walking. Our Faculty. American Psychological Association. Social friendships are important to emotional fulfillment, behavioral adjustment, and cognitive function.

Adult develpment and aging in psychology

Adult develpment and aging in psychology

Adult develpment and aging in psychology

Adult develpment and aging in psychology. Navigation menu

Well done, Xiaoqing! Lighthall was awarded a grant from the Learning Institute for Elders under their Gerontology Applied Research Program grant competition.

Funding from this grant will be used to investigate the efficacy of different disclosure forms on financial decision making in older adults. You can view a video of her presentation […]. Tor Wager at the University of Colorado, […]. New paper by Kylie Fernandez and Dr.

New book on The Aging Brain with contributions from Dr. Posts navigation 1 2 3 Older posts Older posts. Marital satisfaction remains high in older couples, oftentimes increasing shortly after retirement.

This can be attributed to increased maturity and reduced conflict within the relationship. However, when health problems arise, the relationship can become strained. This life event is usually accompanied by some form of bereavement, or grief. There is no set time frame for a mourning period after a loved one passes away, rather every person experiences bereavement in a different form and manner.

Friendships , similar to family relationships, are often the support system for many individuals and a fundamental aspect of life from young adulthood to old age. Social friendships are important to emotional fulfillment, behavioral adjustment, and cognitive function.

While small in number, the quality of relationships is generally thought to be much stronger for older adults. Retirement , or the point in which a person stops employment entirely, is often a time of psychological distress or a time of high quality and enhanced subjective well-being for individuals.

Retirement communities provide for individuals who want to live independently but do not wish to maintain a home. Assisted living facilities are housing options for older adults that provide a supportive living arrangement for people who need assistance with personal care, such as bathing or taking medications, but are not so impaired that they need hour care.

Adult day care is designed to provide social support, companionship, healthcare, and other services for adult family members who may pose safety risks if left at home alone while another family member, typically a care giver, must work or otherwise leave the home.

Adults who have cognitive impairments should be carefully introduced to adult day care. Nursing home facilities provide residents with hour skilled medical or intermediate care. A nursing home is typically seen as a decision of last resort for many family members. While the patient is receiving comprehensive care, the cost of nursing homes can be very high with few insurance companies choosing to cover it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Applied psychology. How and why we age. Experimental Gerontology, 33, Development through Adulthood: An integrative sourcebook. Palgrave Macmillan. Successful aging. The Gerontologist, 37 4 , What is successful ageing and who should define it? British Medical Journal, , Life span theory in developmental psychology. Damon Eds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Identity and the life cycle. London: W. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 21 2 , A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41, 3— Adult Personality Development. Wolfe, F. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. The Lancet, , Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age.

Vision Research, 38 2 , Aging and Sensory Senescence. Southern Medical Journal, 92 3 , The Gerontologist, 40 3 , Experimental Gerontology, 41 12 , Sarcopenia and its implications for the elderly. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54 6. Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in new mexico. American Journal of Epidemiology, 8 , Organ physiology of aging. The Surgical Clinics of North America, 74 1 , Aging of the male reproductive system.

The Journey of Adulthood. Prentice Hall. Adult Development and Aging. Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 7, — Normally occurring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity: From central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis. Psychological Review, , — Neurocognitive Disorders in Aging. Thousand Oaks: Sage, Phoenix: Canyonlands, David J. New York: Chelsea, Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49, Epidemiology of parkinson's disease.

The Lancet Neurology, 5 6 , Extended-release carbidopa-levodopa ipx compared with immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa in patients with parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations: a phase 3 randomised, double-blind trial. The Lancet Neurology, 12 4 , Challenges in parkinson's disease: restoration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system is not enough.

The Lancet Neurology, 3 5 , Mental disorders in older adults: Fundamentals of assessment and treatment. New York: Guilford Press. Depression in the Elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology, 4 , Anxiety in Old Age. Anxiety disorders in older adults: A comprehensive review. Depression and Anxiety, 27 2 , ADHD burden of illness in older adults: A life course perspective.

Quality of Life Research, 21 5 , Aleardi, M. Behavior differences in drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The driving behavior questionnaire. Archived from the original on Retrieved Increased responsiveness to novelty is associated with successful cognitive aging. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 18 10 , Chapter 6 - attention and memory.

In Adult development and aging, 7th edition pp. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Protective factors in midlife: How do people stay healthy?. Emotion regulation in older age. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19 6 , Bereavement in late life: Coping, adaptation, and developmental influences.

American Psychological Association. Proactive aging: A longitudinal study of stress, resources, agency, and well-being in late life. Development of personality in early and middle adulthood: Set like plaster or persistent change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 5 , Set like plaster? Evidence for the stability of adult personality. Personality stability and change over a year period—middle age to old age.

Personality traits in old age: Measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change. Psychology and aging, 27 1 , Age differences in the Big Five across the life span: evidence from two national samples.

Psychology and aging, 23 3 , Personality plasticity in later adulthood: Contextual and personal resources are needed to increase openness to new experiences.

Psychology and aging, 27 4 , Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology,23 5 , Urbina, S. Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns.

American Psychologist, 51 2 , Primary Mental Abilities. Psychometric Monographs, 1, Xi Stability and change in adult intelligence: II.

Simultaneous analysis of longitudinal means and covariance structures. Psychology and Aging, 3 2 , Age differences in fluid and crystallized intelligence. Acta Psychologica, 26, Chapter 5- where people live: Person-environment interactions. In Adult development and aging 7th ed. Social network changes and life events across the life span: A meta-analysis.

Psychology of Adult Development and Aging – Community College of Rhode Island

Therefore, it is no surprise that the vast majority of thinking, philosophizing, and researching on human development centered on these two areas. With advancements in nutrition, medicine, and exercise physiology, life expectancy grew during the 20th century faster than at any other time in human history. Why the history lesson? Simple; the history of human life on this planet is important in understanding the study of human development.

However, smaller numbers offer classes in adulthood and aging. So, why has this area in human development been neglected for so long? Basically, many researchers and philosophers believed that development was set by adolescence. In addition, researchers thought that any development that occurred after childhood and adolescence was minimal, at best Cartwright, Not until the latter part of the 20th century did the topic area of adulthood and aging gather enough momentum to challenge the aforementioned notions.

In there were a little over 9 million Americans who were over the age of By , this number had risen to a little over 35 million, with just short of 70 million people expected by U. Census Bureau, n.

With the growth in this generation of adults, researchers are beginning to realize the importance of aging. In other words, researchers are now acknowledging that development continues throughout the life span and does not stop at adolescence. The second major force behind the momentum change in development is a function of the three major developmental issues: a nature versus nurture, b continuity versus discontinuity, and c stability versus change.

The issue of nature versus nurture has been around as long as people have discussed human development. Basically, the question is, are people who they are because of nature i. Specifically, nature sets a reaction range for people to behave in a predisposed way along a finite continuum.

Nurture then will determine where one falls along this continuum due to the impact of the environmental influence in his or her life. This developmental issue is not as important to adulthood and aging as it is in earlier periods of development.

The second developmental issue is whether development is continuous i. Those who argue for the continuous approach state that development occurs in succession with each experience or life event building on the previous event to create a whole person. Therefore, a child learning to crawl does not just happen upon this circumstance.

Rather, it is a culmination of learning to put weight on his or her forearms, roll over, sit up on all fours, and move in a meaningful direction.

On the other hand, a person subscribing to the discontinuist model of development would argue that language has a critical period or a set time frame within which to be developed. Specifically, as humans, people must acquire language well before puberty or they will never have native-like abilities Pinker, This fact argues that there is some type of critical period in which language acquisition must take place and cannot be overcome by a gradual cumulative process.

The final highly debated developmental issue has to do with stability versus change. Particularly, are people always basically the same individual, growing into simply older renditions of their earlier selves i.

It is this question of stability or change that has helped shift the focus of many people in development away from only evaluating childhood and adolescence to examining the importance of adulthood and aging. Historically, certain theorists have dominated the field of psychology rightfully so or not. The domain of developmental psychology is no exception. Typically, developmental psychologists reference Piaget, Freud, Vygotzky, Erickson, and others as important theorists in their field.

However, by the time people reach puberty, Piaget believed that they had progressed as far as they could in their complexity of thinking. Again like Piaget, Freud believed that development was determined by puberty. Still, this theory is grounded in work with children and adolescence in educational settings and has yet to be applied to adult development. However, not all theorists focus only on the early years of development. Simply, the theorists and major theoretical approaches to adulthood and aging are not as well known as those for childhood and adolescence, yet their impact on understanding adulthood and aging has been just as valuable.

Throughout the rest of the article, the importance of each of these theorists will be further explored, as well as the importance of other, lesser known theorists and theoretical approaches. How do people know about the developmental track that is adulthood and aging? The answer: research. Traditional research methods i. These include longitudinal, cross-sectional, and sequential designs. Longitudinal approaches are strategies that look to assess the same individuals over a period of time.

For example, if researchers wanted to determine if intelligence is stable or if it changes over the life span, they could do a longitudinal study in which a group of people was given an intelligence test at 20, again at 40, and again at This would show how intelligence changes for the same group of people over a year time period.

A cross-sectional study is one in which a researcher studies a number of people at different points in life at the same time. Therefore, if someone again wanted to determine if intelligence is stable or if it changes over the life span, groups of , , and year-olds could be given an intelligence test at the same time same day, location, etc.

However, like longitudinal approaches, this research approach has its drawbacks. For example, a cross-sectional approach cannot truly determine if individuals are stable in their behaviors because the researcher does not look at the same individual but rather a group at one point in time. Finally, to combat some of the drawbacks of the aforementioned designs, a researcher could use a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches—a sequential design.

It is only with these research approaches, as along with the traditional use of experimental and descriptive research methods, that researchers can obtain answers concerning adult development.

These approaches have yielded valuable information concerning the developmental issue of stability versus change, different theoretical perspectives and theorists, as well as the impact of adulthood and aging on physical, cognitive, and social development. Thus, research findings can be divided into three main areas within adult development: physical, cognitive, and social.

Many physical changes take place as a person ages. Some of these changes are readily apparent whereas others are not so easily seen.

This figure seems to be the upper limit of the human life span. Currently, the average life expectancy is far below that number. The average life expectancy in the United States is As mentioned earlier, life expectancy has changed significantly over the last century. Although men have always had a lower life expectancy than women, the gap is shrinking. In , the average life expectancy for men was In , the gap was 7.

Both genetics and environment influence the rate at which these changes occur. Some research has found that certain markers of aging—motor functioning, mean arterial pressure, and forced expiratory volume—have a strong genetic component Finkel et al. However, despite small physical declines, research also indicates good news with regard to aging.

Additionally, studies have found that function losses that were once thought to be age-related, such as decreased mobility or memory lapses, can be slowed or even stopped Shute, Yet, even with what is known about the aging process, many young, healthy adults often avoid spending time with older people because it reminds them of their future, which they perceive as negative.

This negative view of the aging process, although inaccurate in many ways, is propagated by portrayals in the media Pipher, The optimal amount of sleep needed at night and the quality of sleep change during adulthood.

Researchers have investigated sex and age differences with regard to sleep and sleep problems in adulthood. Insomnia in adults can be treated in a few ways, such as with benzodiazepines. However, these drugs have known and undesirable side effects Montgomery, Alternatives to treating insomnia with medications do exist and include cognitive behavioral interventions, bright lights for problems related to timing of sleep, and physiological interventions such as exercise Montgomery, The implications of these research findings are that weight gain, to some degree, is inevitable during the aging process.

Adults can try to reduce weight gain by measures such as healthful eating habits, restricted diet, and exercise. An extreme reaction to weight gain is the development in adults of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the prevalence of obesity in the United States among adults continues to grow.

In and , obesity rates in adults were as follows: In addition, rates of obesity in the elderly defined as 60 and older are predicted to increase from Many factors including amount of sleep Hasler et al. Longitudinal research also indicates that dietary changes occur from adolescence to adulthood, and key factors identified with this change include parents, partners, children, nutritional awareness, employment, and lack of time Lake et al.

Researchers have found that exercise benefits not only physical health but also mental health, including improved self-concept and reduced anxiety and depression DiLorenzo et al.

Much research has examined the relation between physical activity and quality of life in older adults. Current research on exercise in adults is even investigating the psychological effects of exercise via virtual reality. Considerable research has documented the use of alcohol and cigarettes by adults. In early adulthood, the rates of alcohol use among college students are also high. Some researchers have found sex differences in predictors of heavy drinking in young adulthood.

Research has also examined sex differences with regard to life satisfaction and alcohol consumption. Although much research has focused on alcohol use by young adults, alcohol use by mature adults also is a topic of research concern.

Research has examined a how often mature adults binge drink and b what life events influence alcohol consumption. With regard to how often mature adults binge drink, one study found that adults between the ages of 75 and 95 were In addition, older women overall were Researchers conclude that guidelines for alcohol consumption should be the same for both older men and women R.

Moss, In researching links between life events and alcohol consumption, one longitudinal study examined the effects of life events on alcohol consumption in late adulthood. Over 60 million persons In addition, between and , cigarette smoking in the past month decreased from Of course, one of the biggest issues faced by people as they grow older is health and disease.

Adult develpment and aging in psychology