I was in my kitchen getting my children ready for the school run when my phone pinged. The children in the case were to decide for themselves when they were old enough to do so. I felt stunned. Like the father, my ex-partner is Muslim and wished to have our sons circumcised according to his cultural and religious beliefs. The boys in the High Court case were a similar age to our sons, too — mine are now seven and five.
Abu-Sahlieh SA. During the procedure, the baby is placed on a special table. While a rabbi speaks about new life and making the world a better place, a woman quietly sets out gauze, scissors and other tools on a table near the altar. There is no equivalent of American muslims circumcision Jewish mohel in Islam. There was a delay in circumcision in Variations, taking into account the needs of the individual patient, resources, and limitations unique to the institution or type of practice, may be appropriate. It was also about him losing the role to choose this for his son, and in consequence facing the reactions of his immediate and extended family, his home community, work colleagues and many of his friends. Preferred methods of male neonatal circumcision among mothers in lagos Nigeria. Vol American muslims circumcision
Caseys cam hot teen webcam pictures. 1. Introduction
Demographic and Health Surveys, Namibia, — There would be great cognitive dissonance. Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics, Fourth edition. Our estimates for MC prevalence in many smaller countries and American muslims circumcision tended to be less precise. The role of circumcision in preventing STIs. Thank you for an erudite and objective article. These people moved American muslims circumcision and formed what is known today as the Bantu. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Another reason is cleanliness; but how circumciison can it be to American muslims circumcision your penis clean? Accessed 2 Apr Archived from the original on January 8, Global circumcision rates. University of Pennsylvania Press. Immer mehr Jungen Amerlcan Vorschulalter werden beschnitten. A British doctor, Douglas Gairdner, who reviewed the issue in found that scientific understanding of the foreskin was woefully inadequate; little Americah had ever been done Maqture milf its normal development, including the time it takes for the foreskin to fully separate from the head of the penis and become retractable.
While a rabbi speaks about new life and making the world a better place, a woman quietly sets out gauze, scissors and other tools on a table near the altar.
- Male circumcision is nearly universal in the Muslim world and in Israel due to the religious beliefs of the majority of Muslims and Jews ; however, some non-Muslim groups living within Muslim-majority countries, such as Armenians and Assyrians , do not practise it.
- Jan 5.
- While a rabbi speaks about new life and making the world a better place, a woman quietly sets out gauze, scissors and other tools on a table near the altar.
- Current MC prevalence is not known for all countries globally.
I was in my kitchen getting my children ready for the school run when my phone pinged. The children in the case were to decide for themselves when they were old enough to do so.
I felt stunned. Like the father, my ex-partner is Muslim and wished to have our sons circumcised according to his cultural and religious beliefs. The boys in the High Court case were a similar age to our sons, too — mine are now seven and five. I took the children to school. On returning home, I sat down to re-read the all-too-brief news report.
I cried tears of sadness, relief and remaining fears. While our family has managed to avoid taking our conflict over circumcision to court, the issue has been a major factor in the break-up of our marriage. It also remains alive for us as we negotiate the upbringing of our children.
When you know it is not medically necessary, that it is painful and that there is no other reason to, why would you? I was living in Istanbul when my husband and I learned I was pregnant with a boy.
On holiday back in the UK and in conversation with my husband, he was adamant our son should be circumcised. I disagreed, arguing it would hurt our child. I asked whether washing was not better than cutting off part of the body to be clean and whether it could be dangerous to believe oneself safer from STDs.
I knew my husband to be open-minded, and while his religious belief was strong, he did not follow all the basic Islamic prescripts. I believed he would rethink, and I wanted to trust that both of our opinions and the rights of our child would be important in the decision. We finally agreed on a compromise that our son would, at an age when he could be aware of all the issues, decide for himself. It was also about him losing the role to choose this for his son, and in consequence facing the reactions of his immediate and extended family, his home community, work colleagues and many of his friends.
We shared with each other our mutual thought that no one would be likely to freely decide to be circumcised. But he insisted he was glad about our decision. But I believed that in this compromise our child had at least been given his right to choose. Our lives continued. During his breaks from work, we would meet and walk around the centre of Istanbul. The old city is beautiful, containing the vast structures of the sixth-century Hagia Sophia, the Blue Mosque and Topkapi Palace.
It has the open space and green parks lacking in many other areas of the sprawling yet condensed and concreted megacity. One day we were walking by the seafront of the Bosphorus, with the edge of Asia and the Princes Islands in sight over the bright blue water. He claimed my stand against it was because I was dissatisfied with him.
I wanted to keep the decision about our son separate, not argue in front of our child, and not complicate the issue. Take your baby. My head was spinning. I thought about leaving for the UK. I could pick up our passports and take a plane and be out of the situation for good. I wanted to believe that, in time, our relationship could heal.
Again, the difficulty of the moment seemed to pass. I visited family and friends in the UK a few months later, taking our son for his first birthday. I returned to Turkey and not long after became pregnant with our second son. In the sweltering heat of Istanbul, our son would often toddle naked around our home.
I overheard my husband joking with him one day about his future circumcision. I also realised children must be psychologically prepared by their adult carers to undergo circumcision. Boys may be nervous, but they also become objects of pride.
Circumcision is seen as a rite of passage towards becoming a man. Attempting to prepare our son for circumcision felt like a betrayal of our compromise that our son would be free to choose for himself. I sought to reassure my child that no one would hurt him, that his baba had only been joking and would stop. He asked questions and my husband wanted to answer. When my husband asked me to research male circumcision to understand the benefits, I agreed.
At one level, wishing the tensions within our family might be resolved, I was open to finding out whether the claims of benefits might be true. But turning to the internet, what I found was an overwhelming amount of information supporting remaining intact. My husband maintained it was far safer in medical clinics than the rural homestead in which he had been circumcised. I had seen a sepia-faded photograph, a large crowd of men surrounding him on what looked like a hot and dusty day to witness his circumcision as a young child.
He flatly refused. But I felt I was talking to a wall — he simply did not want to discuss it further. And circumcision, he said, was going to happen. Our marriage suffered increasingly and circumcision seemed to have cracked its foundations. I told my husband that I wanted us to move as a family to the UK, believing we could all be happier there.
I wanted our sons to start school there, and my father was in growing need of home care. The nearing threat of circumcision had become a pushing factor, too, though one I felt I could no longer safely voice. It was late summer Our eldest son was sleeping in his pushchair, while I carried my youngest, just a couple of months old, in a sling.
Through rarely seen tears he began to explain how important circumcision was, that it was about belonging, and that, in effect, if his sons were not circumcised, they simply would not be his.
I was disturbed by his emotions and the extremity of his statement, recalling the time he told me to take the baby and go. I refused to accept responsibility for his feelings about whether he felt his children were his or not.
It sounds perhaps obvious that I should have left earlier. But I never agreed to it, and never expressed a wish to become Muslim. Even if I had, I would argue that I had the right to change my mind, and that Islam has space for pro-intact arguments on health and religious grounds. I wanted to create a good relationship with my husband, I wanted our children to have both of us bringing them up. But with each argument and the intensity of them stacking up, together with refusal on his part to read the evidence against circumcision and for staying intact, I found it increasingly impossible to trust him.
I began to worry he might just take them and have the operation done. He stayed overnight at work, and we met to do food shopping, or I would take the children to meet him for breakfast or lunch. I had my date set for leaving Turkey for the UK and was open about keeping to it.
We arranged a visa to the UK for my husband. I hoped he might join us after we had settled there — once he had visited a few times and could see opportunity for work or creating a business. In private, I counted down the days, growing desperate to leave and be safely back home. In the end, my husband remained in Istanbul. As soon as we were in the UK, my husband tried repeatedly and angrily to persuade me to visit.
Without him expressing a wish to join us to live in the UK and with his angry outbursts over circumcision, I saw this as threatening. I also began to fear that were they to go to Turkey I might never see them again.
The mirror situation was not lost on me — it is difficult and expensive for many Turks to travel to the UK and his family is large. They are missing seeing our sons grow up. Time passed and anger again cooled.
In between visits they talk and laugh on Skype, exchange voice, emoticon and text messages. But I do not feel free to build trust on behalf of my children that they would not be circumcised given some opportunity for it to be done, in the UK or elsewhere. In Turkey, I would not have a legal say either way. Over the phone, I also explained I felt unsafe going to Istanbul, where my consent or presence was not required for our sons to be circumcised. As much as I could not accept it would happen, he still seemed to think it unimaginable it would not, that I simply needed reassuring that I would be there to care for my children.
My husband agreed to read some of the research on circumcision that explained its negative impacts and why staying intact was healthier. He re-agreed on our original compromise, saying he did not want to hurt us. But trust is hard and slow to rebuild.
The High Court ruling, upholding the rights of two children to choose upon maturity, and the rights of both parents to be heard, offers some reassurance. It also throws up a lot of questions. Were the dissenting parent also Muslim it is not at all clear which way the law would fall. How could the law be effective in preventing someone determined to have their child circumcised? And how can I ever feel that my sons will be safe?
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Discussion The true global MC prevalence is not known precisely and can only be estimated. Before the circ I honestly never thought of foreskin as fun or felt good or anything. Circumcision is largely a modern-day phenomenon in South Korea. The true global MC prevalence is not known precisely and can only be estimated. Frontiers in Pediatrics , in press.
American muslims circumcision. Science/Writing
Reported Male Circumcision Practices in a Muslim-Majority Setting
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The notion of bodily integrity forms an important part of the value-structure of many religions and cultures. In this paper, we explore the notion of bodily integrity in Islam using male circumcision as the focus of the discussion. Our aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the Muslim perspective and of the differences and similarities between Western and Islamic ethical structures, in particular, regarding the concept of bodily integrity.
Modern bioethics developed in the s and was mainly based on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and distributive justice. However, contemporary developments in bioethics in the USA and Europe have led to other concepts and principles including dignity, respect for life, solidarity, and bodily integrity. Because modern bioethics developed in the West, Christianity was quite influential.
Many peoples and religions, particularly the three Abrahamic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam consider these principles as key elements in their religious or cultural value system. Both sources are important for our kind of study.
The English references chosen for this study are necessary to explore additional ethical concepts and principles. Although it is not a literal translation, the term accords the intended sense. This might contribute to bridging the gap between Western and Islamic bioethics. In this paper we focus on male circumcision. The custom of circumcision is a worldwide phenomenon, although it occurs at different rates, depending on prevailing religions and traditions.
It is not restricted to Jews and Muslims. Uncircumcised Muslims are rare. The rate of circumcision in Muslim nations is between 90 and percent. This includes the Christians who form a significant part of some Arab states. It is practiced for medical-therapeutic, medical-preventive, or religious reasons. Some researchers say it is also performed as a social custom.
These are done largely to grant the practice scientific legitimacy and a moral foundation. Because drops of urine and smegma gather under that piece of foreskin and may cause impurity to clothes and the body, many Islamic jurists understand the purpose of legislating circumcision as a way to purify the body from urine and smegma. First, we provide a short overview of the Islamic regulations of male circumcision.
Subsequently, we will highlight some central Islamic aspects of bodily integrity and explore relevant applications and guidelines. We thereby focus on the relation between bodily integrity and male circumcision.
Our aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the Muslim perspective of the differences and similarities between Western and Islamic ethical structures, particularly regarding the concept of bodily integrity. Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah, does good, and follows the way of Ibrahim the true in Faith? For Allah did take Ibrahim for a friend. Say: Allah has spoken the truth, therefore follow the religion of Ibrahim, the upright one; and he was not one of the polytheists.
Among Sunni Muslim jurists, there are some differences in religious rulings on male circumcision. The scholars agree that circumcision entails the removal of all or the majority of the foreskin that covers the glans only.
Rare voices, such as Sami Awad Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, a Swiss writer of Palestinian Christian origin, have recently called for Muslims to put an end to the practice of circumcision and consider it a violation of the sacred human body. Such activists believe that circumcision is in conflict with physical nature and constitutes the amputation of a healthy and functional part of the body. Islam expresses a remarkable interest in the honor and preservation of the body. Many Quranic verses and Prophetic traditions set out the restrictions and instructions for its care.
Islam views the body as a divine miracle, one that points to the existence of the Creator and the greatness of His creation.
And on the earth are signs for those who have Faith with certainty. And also in their own selves. Will you not then see? And indeed We have honored the Children of Adam. The honor bestowed by Almighty Allah is the reason for the restrictions and practices set upon human beings. These restrictions are boundaries set to guard human dignity and bodily integrity.
Islamic law honors the body even after death. Islamic law forbids defacing or maiming a corpse. Breaking the bone of a corpse is equivalent to breaking the bone of a living being.
Your body has a right on you. Each individual is responsible to preserve, care for, and respect the integrity of his or her body before God. A human being is not just responsible for maintaining moral accountability with the body, but also its physical body as the body is a trust from God. Diseases and calamities that befall the human body have a moral dimension, one related to the will of God. This dimension is the foundation both for bodily and moral integrity.
It is for this reason that righteous Muslims who are sick or wounded or have lost part of their bodies have been asked not to feel deficient. They believe that their ordeals are the will of God. No fatigue, nor disease, nor sorrow, nor sadness, nor hurt, nor distress befalls a Muslim, even if it were the prick he receives from a thorn, but that Allah expiates some of his sins for that. Verily, We created man in the best stature mould. Who made everything He has created good and He began the creation of man from clay.
All actions that would deface or maim the body are forbidden in Islam. The body must remain in its original form unless specific permission is given from the Creator to make a change.
Any change in the original creation of the body is considered one of the great sins in Islam. Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.
Consequently, cosmetic changes of the body are not lawful because aesthetic reasons are not considered moral justifications for violating bodily integrity. Tattoos, cleaved teeth, plucked eyebrows, and other procedures are absolutely forbidden.
A hadith states:. Although women are the direct subject of this hadith, the prohibition covers both men and women.
Do not mutilate the animal bodies. Accordingly, physical interventions that are forbidden become permissible when performing indicated surgery. Islamic jurisprudence distinguishes between various types of surgery and divides them into categories: necessary surgeries for preserving life , required surgeries for treating diseases that usually do not lead to death, such as tonsillectomy , and cosmetic surgeries such as face lift and breast augmentation.
Islamic law allows the first two types while the third type, cosmetic surgery, is forbidden. It says that legalizing any forbidden procedure, such as violating bodily integrity, must be within the narrowest limits and in accordance with only that which is absolutely necessary.
Therefore, there must be a good reason for an intervention into the human body. In terms of circumcision, this rule means only removing the part of the skin that covers the glans.
Many bioethicists, both Muslims and non-Muslims, see a greater moral value in the treatment of living bodies than in the treatment of corpses. They believe that violating a dead body is less serious than violating a living body, as the living body belongs to someone who is aware of his or her surroundings, in contrast to when he or she is dead.
As such, Muslims avoid cutting, maiming or anatomizing the body, except in a case where there is a considerable necessity, for example, studying anatomy in medical schools or autopsy to determine the cause of death. The concept of bodily integrity is deeply rooted in religious and philosophical considerations. For example, a child fears blood flowing from a wound in a finger.
The same is true for surgeons in their early days of surgical experience, forming a memory that will never leave them. In the same way, a person witnessing for the first time a circumcision performed on a small child might consider the procedure a violation of bodily integrity and an unjustified aggression.
However this strong instinctive feeling may diminish gradually, day after day, by experience and practice. The surgeons remain the best example for that.
While there is general agreement among Muslims that the principle of bodily integrity is something natural and instinctive, a correlation between circumcision and the violation of bodily integrity does not exist. Bodily integrity and its various consequences for medical practice cannot be properly understood unless a shift is made from seeing the human body as simply a material body to seeing it within a set of aesthetic or moral values and dimensions.
Islam, along with Judaism and Christianity, provides a different viewpoint in that these religious traditions do not give an individual full control over his or her body. Rather, Islamic texts restrict the autonomy of the individual on the body as it is a creation of God. Each person is held accountable before God, for the way he or she takes care of his or her body.
From a body-oriented approach, there are three distinguishable dimensions of bodily integrity: biological, subjective, and normative wholeness. The anatomical point of view focuses on the structure of the body and the texture of its tissues and organs, whereas the physiological refers to how these tissues and organs function properly. There is a general consensus that preserving the biological structure and the physiological function of the body is an ethical duty in many divine laws, religions, and societies.
Such violation is either material, i. Removing a gangrenous foot should therefore not be considered a violation of bodily integrity, although some argue that it is a violation of the integrity of the body, even if there are good reasons for intervention. Concerning the requirement to respect the body and avoid violating the health of the body, Islam has the same attitude as the other Abrahamic religions. However, a significant question arises in this respect: is the foreskin an essential part of the body such that removing it constitutes an anatomical deficiency or causes physiological dysfunction?
If so, circumcision would be considered a violation of bodily integrity, unless there are clear medical reasons to perform the intervention. Opinions differ as to the anatomical and functional significance of the foreskin. Those who oppose circumcision describe the process of circumcising as a major operation that leads to a permanent anatomical, structural, and functional change in the penis.
The prevailing opinion among Muslims, however, is that the foreskin does not form an essential part of the body and that it bears no physiological function. This opinion also raises a theological contradiction. How could God, who repeatedly declares that humans are created in the best image, form an organ the prepuce whose anatomical and physiological significance is in question? Why would He then command the performance of a painful operation to remove it? Muslim intellectuals argue that the answer is two-fold.