Asian arowana-San Diego Man Convicted for Selling Endangered Fish on Craigslist - NBC 7 San Diego

Yachts, jets and mansions are the usual signs of extreme wealth. But for the Asian elite, a rare exotic fish has become a coveted status symbol and all-around obsession. Arowana, also known as "dragon fish," are not the typical pet fish. They are bred throughout South East Asia and can grow to be around three feet long about the size of a snowshoe. Many even believe that the fish brings good luck and wealth.

Asian arowana

Asian arowana

Asian arowana

Unfortunately, it was the worst time of the year. Fishy business Economies of scale: why Asia is obsessed with arowanas The pricey ornamental fish is thought to resemble a dragon and Asian arowana good luck. Small Asian arowana mighty: the evolutionary dynamics of W and Y sex chromosomes. In Malaysia, an aquarium shop owner was stabbed to death and nearly beheaded Pussy strech just for his fish. Name required.

Porn squirting machine glass table. Michael Loo illegally sold endangered Asian arowana fish via online transactions

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Colorado State University. Enlarge Asian arowana. Version Special Request. Also your full delivery information will be required at this point in time. Asian arowana us to Kenny the Fish. Overseas, however, the species is an openly coveted commodity in a legitimate luxury market. In juveniles, the areas destined to develop golden sAian start out metallic silver. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.

By Emily Voigt.

  • The Asian arowana Scleropages formosus comprises several phenotypic varieties of freshwater fish distributed geographically across Southeast Asia.
  • All rights reserved.
  • By Emily Voigt.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. It represents an ancient lineage of teleosts: the Osteoglossomorpha. Here, we provide a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome of a female golden-variety arowana using a combination of deep shotgun sequencing and high-resolution linkage mapping.

In addition, we have also generated two draft genome assemblies for the red and green varieties. Phylogenomic analysis supports a sister group relationship between Osteoglossomorpha bonytongues and Elopomorpha eels and relatives , with the two clades together forming a sister group of Clupeocephala which includes all the remaining teleosts.

The arowana genome retains the full complement of eight Hox clusters unlike the African butterfly fish Pantodon buchholzi , another bonytongue fish, which possess only five Hox clusters. Differential gene expression among three varieties provides insights into the genetic basis of colour variation.

The high-quality reference genome of the golden arowana and the draft assemblies of the red and green varieties are valuable resources for understanding the biology, adaptation and behaviour of Asian arowanas.

With over 30, extant species, ray-finned fishes Class: Actinopterygii are the largest group of extant vertebrates. The evolution of this group of ray-finned fishes was accompanied by emergence of several novel characters which were crucial to their success 2. Sequencing and analysis of whole-genomes from fugu and other teleosts have revealed that the common ancestor of teleosts experienced a whole-genome duplication event, known as the teleost-specific genome duplication TGD , about million years ago 3 , 4.

The TGD has been proposed to have provided the additional raw genetic material that was used for evolving genes with novel functions resulting in novel phenotypes thereby spurring the diversity of teleosts 5 , 6.

Thus, genome sequences of ancient groups of teleosts that emerged soon after the TGD are crucial for understanding the genetic basis of the origin and diversity of teleosts. Teleosts are classified into three broad groups: the Osteoglossomorpha bonytongues and mooneyes , Elopomorpha eels and relatives and Clupeocephala the remaining teleosts. Among them, Osteoglossomorpha is considered as one of the ancient groups, with fossil records dating back to the late Jurassic 7.

However, the phylogenetic relationships of the three groups are controversial 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , Earlier mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis had placed Osteoglossomorpha as the ancestral teleost group, with Elopomorpha and Clupeocephala forming a monophyletic group Three major colour varieties of arowana occur naturally: the green, golden and red varieties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these colour variations remain largely elusive.

In order to reduce the pressure on natural populations, farms have started culturing different varieties of arowana. One of the bottlenecks in the cultivation of arowana is the lack of a reliable and easy sex-determining method. Since the sex of even mature brooders is not obvious, broodstock selection and management often become skewed towards selection by desired phenotype, like colour and body shape.

In this study, we have generated a high quality, chromosome-level reference genome of a golden female arowana Fig. Based on a stringent, genome-scale set of one-to-one orthologues from various teleosts, we report a robust phylogenomic analysis which resolves the branching order of the three major lineages of teleosts.

A golden, B red and C green variety. The value of the fish depends on the colour with the red variety fetching the highest price. Sequence reads from the three varieties were assembled separately Supplementary Table 3 using SOAPdenovo2 16 resulting in N50 scaffold sizes of 5. We then indentified ,, 1,, and 1,, heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms SNP and detected the following heterozygosity levels: 1. To further improve the quality of the golden variety genome assembly, we developed a high-density genetic map by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing RAD-seq using 94 F2 individuals that originated from red grade 1 and Malaysian golden arowana grandparents Subsequently, we identified 22, SNPs using the golden assembly as the reference, of which 5, refined SNPs and their corresponding scaffolds were clustered and embedded into 25 linkage groups Fig.

The high-quality linkage group-anchored assembly of the golden variety of Asian arowana can be used as a reference genome, whereas the draft genomes of green and red varieties are suitable for comparative studies. Concentric circles from the outside: A Chromosome length Mb and numbers. Chromosome numbers were assigned based on the linkage groups. B Distribution of gene density in 1Mb non-overlapping windows.

C Expression level of genes in skin tissue of the golden arowana. High yellow peaks indicate strong expression. D Distribution of repeat density in 1Mb non-overlapping windows. Deeper green colour indicates higher repeat density. E Distribution of GC content in 1Mb non-overlapping windows. Darker blue colour indicates higher GC content. The pink lines represent the inner synteny blocks. Gene structures of the three genomes were in high accordance with those of other fishes Supplementary Fig.

All of the above data confirmed the accuracy and high quality of the three gene sets. The distribution of gene and repeat density, GC content, and gene expression levels in skin tissue across the chromosomes of golden variety are shown in Fig.

Previous studies based on morphological and molecular data have produced conflicting phylogenetic relationships among the three major lineages of teleosts. Morphological and fossil data have placed osteoglossomorphs 22 or elopomorphs 23 as the sister group to the remaining teleosts.

Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S ribosomal RNA as well as a larger set of 4, protein-coding genes from jawed vertebrates placed elopomorphs as sister to osteoglossomorphs 9 , On the other hand, mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis 11 as well as a study based on proteins extracted from a draft assembly of the Asian arowana 15 have placed osteoglossomorphs as sister to the remaining teleosts.

A Alternative phylogenetic models for the branching order of Osteoglossomorpha, Elopomorpha and Clupeocephala. B Phylogenetic position of Asian arowana with respect to other teleost fishes. The trees are based on one-to-one orthologues , nucleotide positions from 12 vertebrates. The scale bar represents 0. The availability of a high quality reference genome of the arowana provided us the opportunity to analyze the branching order of the three groups using a phylogenomic approach.

We generated Maximum Likelihood ML and Bayesian Inference BI trees using 2, one-to-one orthologues from nine species including one elopomorph, one osteoglossomorph, five clupeocephalans and two outgroups spotted gar and coelacanth. The monophyletic clade comprising elopomorphs and osteoglossomorphs formed a sister group to Clupeocephala, again with maximal support BS , PP 1. The other two topologies, i. Thus, phylogenomic analysis and topology testing strongly supported the monophyletic clade of Elopomorpha and Osteoglossomorpha.

To further verify this relationship, we obtained transcriptome data from an additional elopomorph Megalops cyprinoides , Indo-Pacific tarpon and two osteoglossomorphs Pantodon buchholzi , African butterflyfish; Papyrocranus afer , reticulate knifefish. We then generated ML and BI trees using one-to-one orthologues from 12 species. The branching of these three groups is a typical case of near-simultaneous emergence of lineages that happened within a narrow temporal window of approximately 13 million years during the Early Permian 8 , Divergence events that occur during such short time spans result in reduced phylogenetic signal as there is not sufficient time for accumulation of a large number of synapomorphies.

This is possibly why conflicting topologies have been obtained in previous molecular phylogenetic studies using smaller datasets. Since we used a genome-scale dataset, our data contains substantially larger number of phylogenetically informative characters. This might have helped in inferring the correct relationships.

We note that previous studies have not identified any morphological synapomorphies between Osteoglossomorpha and Elopomorpha groups. Thus, there is a need to look for additional morphological characters that can be used to define these major teleost clades as well as to generate phylogenetic trees using independent data sets such as intron changes and other genomic markers.

We estimated the divergence times of spotted gar, arowanas and other teleosts using MCMCTree 25 on 1,, four-folds-degenerated sites extracted from 2, one-to-one orthologues together with three fossil calibration points. Our estimates showed that spotted gar and arowanas teleosts diverged million years ago, which is consistent with estimates from a previous study Interestingly, our analysis also showed that the three colour varieties of arowanas diverged around 1 to 4 million years ago and have since been evolving as independent lineages Supplementary Fig.

Hox genes are attractive candidates for understanding the genetic basis of morphological diversity in animals as they play critical roles in defining identity of body segments 27 , Several studies have highlighted the crucial roles of Hox genes in establishing the body plan of teleosts. For example, duplication of Hox clusters and the resultant divergence of Hox gene expression pattern in the pufferfish are associated with the lack of ribs and pelvic fins Previous analysis of Hox clusters in an osteoglossomorph, the African butterfly fish Pantodon buchholzi 31 , had shown that it contains only five Hox clusters with 45 Hox genes , thus indicating that its lineage has lost three Hox clusters post-TGD.

However, analysis of the whole-genome of the arowana indicated that it has retained all the eight Hox clusters following TGD similar to the European eel, a member of Elopomorpha The eight Hox clusters of arowana contain 59 Hox genes Supplementary Fig. This finding suggests that the common ancestor of osteoglossomorphs contained a complete post-TGD set of eight Hox clusters and the African butterfly fish lineage subsequently lost three duplicate Hox clusters after splitting from the arowana lineage.

For example, the butterfly fish possesses duplicate copies of hoxb4 hoxb4x and hoxb4y , whereas the arowana retains only hoxb4b Supplementary Fig. Additionally, the arowana has lost both copies of hoxd13 whereas the single HoxD cluster in butterfly fish has retained a hoxd13 gene hoxd13x Supplementary Fig. These findings indicate that the complement of Hox genes can vary dramatically even between closely related lineages of vertebrates.

Such variation in gene complement is characteristic of teleosts which have experienced an additional round of genome duplication followed by rapid differential loss of duplicate genes in different lineages 33 , The contribution of this Hox gene complement variation to the phenotypic differences between arowana and African butterfly fish remain to be determined.

In order to detect the potential molecular mechanisms underlying colour variation, we analyzed gene expression patterns in the combined scale and skin samples of the three arowana varieties Supplementary Fig. Intriguingly, we found that the golden and green varieties clustered together in a common branch based on their similar expression trends as compared to the red variety.

Both fhl2 paralogs, especially fhl2b , have been shown by previous studies 35 , 36 , 37 to be involved in the formation of the egg-spot phenotype related to the production and deployment of xanthophores. It is possible that their high expression levels in the golden arowana could have contributed to the formation of increased number of xanthophores that in turn help to maintain the bright yellow colour in their scales and skin tissues.

Reconstruction of the ancestral teleost karyotype and models of teleost genome evolution have been previously proposed based on genomes of clupeocephalan teleosts such as Tetraodon and medaka 4 , 38 , We aligned the arowana and human genomes, and identified 61 doubly conserved synteny DCS, Supplementary Table 15 blocks, which is consistent with previous studies 4 , Comparison of the teleost ancestor chromosomes from ref.

A Thirteen pre-TGD reduced ancestral chromosomes are indicated as coloured bars. Genomic regions originating from the same ancestral chromosomes are depicted in the same colour. Green, red and blue arrows represent translocation, fusion and fission events, respectively.

The numbers in each branch of tree are the estimated divergence times. Circos plots show syntenic relationships between the linkage groups of spotted gar and chromosomes of arowana B zebrafish C and medaka D. Spotted gar chromosome numbers are shown in red whereas those of arowana, zebrafish and medaka are shown in black.

This resemblance has spawned the belief that the fish brings good luck and prosperity — that it will even commit suicide by vaulting from its tank, sacrificing its life to save its owner. Molecular Biology and Evolution. This popularity has had both positive and negative effects on their status as endangered species. The farms in Southeast Asia where they are produced are like high-security prisons with concrete walls protected by guard dogs, watchtowers, and barbed wire. I'd avoid this like the plague. These popular aquarium fish have special cultural significance in areas influenced by Chinese culture.

Asian arowana

Asian arowana

Asian arowana

Asian arowana

Asian arowana

Asian arowana. Predatory fish articles

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This Asian Arowana Fish Costs More Than Your Lamborghini – Robb Report

Yachts, jets and mansions are the usual signs of extreme wealth. But for the Asian elite, a rare exotic fish has become a coveted status symbol and all-around obsession. Arowana, also known as "dragon fish," are not the typical pet fish. They are bred throughout South East Asia and can grow to be around three feet long about the size of a snowshoe. Many even believe that the fish brings good luck and wealth.

Tales abound of arowana sacrificing their lives to jump out of tanks and warn owners against bad business ventures and other dangers. Protected by the Endangered Species Act, the Asian arowana is nearly depleted from the wild. In , countries signed a treaty classifying it as a rare species and banning the fish from international trade. To this day, it cannot legally be brought into the United States.

The treaty helped transform the fish into a luxury commodity. But as the arowana obsession grew, a thriving black market emerged along with an uptick in violence across certain cities.

Singapore, which boasts one of the lowest crime rates, once experienced four arowana thefts in a single week. During one of those heists, the thief punched an elderly woman as he took off with her fish sloshing in a bucket. At fish beauty pageants, armed guards escort the rare breeds. Restrictions were loosened in the late s to allow the trade of farm-bred arowana whose parents were also born in captivity.

Sales of captive-bred arowana flourished until the s. But in , prices fell substantially as breeders flooded the market. Singaporean breeders say that the price of red arowana has dropped by a third since then. Demand is still high, however. Like this story? Don't miss: This Indian billionaire is the world's richest sports team owner. Get Make It newsletters delivered to your inbox. All Rights Reserved. Skip Navigation. Spend How rising car prices can hurt the average American Anna Hecht. With its dragon shaped body and colorful scales, the Asian arowana has been dubbed Asia's favorite fish.

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Asian arowana

Asian arowana