Gonorrhea pharyngeal-

Data are available from the Alfred Hospital Ethics Committee for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential information, due to restrictions outlined in the consent form. The pharynx is a common site of gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men MSM and may serve as a reservoir for infection, with saliva implicated in transmission possibly through oral sex, kissing, and rimming. Reducing sexual activities involving saliva may reduce pharyngeal gonorrhoea. MSM were also asked their views on using alcohol-containing mouthwash to potentially reduce transmission. The 10 interviews conducted face to face and 20 by telephone, lasted between 20—45 minutes.

Gonorrhea pharyngeal

Gonorrhea pharyngeal

Thank you Gonorrhea pharyngeal submitting a comment on this article. Among women, gonococcal infections are commonly asymptomatic or might not produce recognizable symptoms until complications e. Abstract We describe a sexual network consisting of 1 nonbinary-gendered participant Gonorrhea pharyngeal 2 male and 4 female participants in Australia, In addition, U. If found to be effective, the use of mouthwash against pharyngeal gonorrhoea was found to be Gonofrhea acceptable amongst MSM in this study. All transcribed interviews were then imported Gonorrnea NVivo 10 Gonorrhea pharyngeal 40 ] for data management. Support Center Support Center. Please check for further notifications by email.

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Robbins Basic Pathology 8th ed. You will Gonorrhea pharyngeal subject to the destination website's privacy policy when Fetus poems follow the link. You may also like. Symptoms might include a sore throat, but 90 percent of the time there are no symptoms at Gonorrhea pharyngeal. Health Guide's Editorial Health Guide Net Gonorreha qualitative and informative articles on health, diet, and beauty. Gonorrhea pharyngeal, the point is that Gonorhea can speculate about what it could be, but the scientists writing articles in medical journals are usually careful not to overstate their case. Mayor is an assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Howard University in Washington, DC, and acts as site director for the residents rotating at Providence Hospital. NAAT allows for the widest variety Gonorrhsa FDA-cleared specimen types, including endocervical swabs, vaginal swabs, urethral swabs menand urine from both men and women. Walking is a free activity which can aid in weight loss and maintenance. May Mothers with a history of STIs or substance abuse. Clinics in Dermatology. Email alerts Phayngeal issue alert. If you Severe scrotum stretching to Gonorrhea pharyngeal everyone with gonorrhea into one giant room, you would be able to find gonococci in the throats of about:.

Experts also believe that undetected oral gonorrhea is partly to blame for the increase in antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea.

  • Gonorrhea , colloquially known as the clap , is a sexually transmitted infection STI caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • This infection can affect multiple sites in the body, but it typically appears in the genital tract.
  • Gonococci can band together to attach themselves to a human cell.
  • This is a corrected version of the article that appeared in print.

Hillard Weinstock, Kimberly A. The actual number of infections per year is thought to be much higher because of underdetection and underreporting [ 1 ]. Neisseria gonorrhoeae can cause cervicitis, urethritis, proctitis, pelvic inflammatory disease with long-term sequelae eg, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain , adverse outcomes of pregnancy, and increased susceptibility to and facilitated transmission of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection.

An essential element in gonorrhea control is the availability and provision of effective antimicrobial therapy. Effective treatment not only eradicates infection in the affected individual and prevents the development of complications, it also has an important public health benefit by shortening the duration of infection, thus decreasing transmission and eliminating reservoirs of infection.

However, gonorrhea treatment has been complicated by the development of resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials over the past 60 years [ 2 ]. Because of the recent emergence of quinolone-resistant N. Several other alternative oral cephalosporins are active against N. Oral cephalosporins have insufficient efficacy for treating gonococcal infections of the pharynx and should not be used in persons in whom pharyngeal infection is suspected [ 3 ].

Diagnosis of N. Nucleic acid amplification tests NAATs permit testing of the widest range of specimen types and are Food and Drug Administration FDA -approved for use with endocervical, vaginal, and male urethral swabs and urine specimens from females and males.

Unlike culture, NAATs are currently not FDA approved for use in the rectum, pharynx, and conjunctiva; however, some public and large private laboratories [ 4 ] have conducted validation tests to meet Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment requirements, allowing them to perform these tests at pharyngeal and rectal sites.

What is not clear, but is concerning, is that with the diminished use and availability of culture for diagnostic purposes, fewer tests are being performed to detect gonorrhea at rectal and pharyngeal sites. In this issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases , Bernstein et al [ 7 ] demonstrate a 4. The prevalence of gonococcal pharyngeal infection varies according to the population studied and the diagnostic method used for detection.

Specific recommendations include annual tests for gonorrhea and chlamydia on urethral or urine specimens in men who have had insertive intercourse, a test for gonococcal pharyngeal infection in men with orogenital exposure, and a test for gonorrhea and chlamydia rectal infection in men who have had receptive anal intercourse in the previous year [ 12 ]. Adherence to these screening recommendations is an important strategy for gonorrhea control in sexually active MSM, because asymptomatic infection at pharyngeal and rectal sites is common among this population, and gonococcal transmission is efficient with insertive or receptive rectal intercourse and fellatio [ 11 ].

With few effective treatment options and limited screening for pharyngeal infection, the pharynx may not only be a reservoir of gonococcal infection, it may be a reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant gonococcal infection, as well. This could have implications for the prevention and control of gonorrhea in MSM and in heterosexuals who participate in oral-genital sexual practices. Providers should inquire about oral sexual exposures in MSM; patients reporting such exposures should be tested and, if infection is present, a regimen with enhanced efficacy against pharyngeal infection should be provided [ 12 ].

Could infection in the pharynx, for example, have contributed to the rapid emergence of quinolone-resistant N. After first becoming established in Hawaii and then in California, QRNG became prevalent in the MSM population throughout the United States [ 14 ], followed by expansion into the heterosexual population a few years later [ 15 ].

Quinolone-resistant N. However, decreased susceptibility of N. Although the CDC conducts national sentinel surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility, surveillance by clinicians is also critical.

Clinicians who identify patients with suspected cephalosporin treatment failure ie, a test result positive for N. Those cases with isolates indicating decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins should be reported to the CDC through state and local public health authorities. Although the study by Bernstein et al [ 7 ] describes the pharynx as a potential reservoir for gonorrhea in MSM, similar studies are warranted in heterosexual populations engaging in receptive oral sexual practices if they have a high prevalence of gonorrhea.

Further progress in the control of gonorrhea will require careful attention to an integrated comprehensive prevention strategy that includes enhancement of surveillance systems to monitor antimicrobial resistance; new approaches to maximize the benefit of available antimicrobials, such as combination therapy; novel antimicrobials; adherence to screening guidelines for those at high risk for infection; and prompt and effective treatment for infected persons and their sexual partners.

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Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Hillard Weinstock. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Kimberly A. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, Search ADS. Emerging antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae : urgent need to strengthen prevention strategies.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinic-based testing for rectal and pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections by community-based organizations—five cities, United States, Testing for sexually transmitted diseases in U.

Public health laboratories in Current STD laboratory testing and volume in the United States among public health laboratories, Google Preview. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission from the oropharynx to the urethra among men who have sex with men.

Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae oropharyngeal infections. Incidence and treatment outcomes of pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in men who have sex with men: a year retrospective cohort study. Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections of the oropharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men.

Self reported syphilis and gonorrhoea testing among men who have sex with men: national HIV behavioural surveillance system, —5. Increases in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men who have sex with men—United States, , and revised recommendations for gonorrhea treatment, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and emerging resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins. Issue Section:.

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Up to 30 percent of cases of ophthalmia neonatorum are caused by C. Joints commonly affected with tenosynovitis or septic arthritis include wrists, ankles, hands, and feet. A 3 The CDC recommends that all men who have sex with men and practice insertive anal intercourse be screened at least annually for urethral gonococcal infection with a urine nucleic acid amplification test. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Top of Page.

Gonorrhea pharyngeal

Gonorrhea pharyngeal

Gonorrhea pharyngeal

Gonorrhea pharyngeal. About Anna C.

Vaginal bleeding after sex. Inguinal lymphadenopathy. Mucopurulent or purulent endocervical exudate. Sustained endocervical bleeding easily induced by swab. Gram stain smear of conjunctival exudates showing elevated PMNL count or gram-negative intracellular diplococci.

Cervical motion, uterine, or adnexal tenderness. Abnormal cervical or vaginal mucopurulent discharge. Laboratory confirmation of cervical infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Elevated C-reactive protein level. WBCs present on saline microscopy wet-mount preparation of vaginal secretions.

Endometrial biopsy with histopathologic evidence of endometritis. Transvaginal sonography or magnetic resonance imaging showing thickened, fluid-filled tubes with or without free pelvic fluid or tubo-ovarian complex, or Doppler studies suggesting pelvic infection.

Laparoscopic abnormalities consistent with pelvic inflammatory disease. Information from references 1 , 2 , and 4. Treatment of gonococcal infections is outlined in Table 3. Although doxycycline is an alternative regimen in combination with a cephalosporin, azithromycin is preferred because of the high prevalence of tetracycline resistance.

The CDC recommends consultation with an infectious disease specialist for patients with a history of severe allergic reactions to cephalosporins. Patients with persistent symptoms after treatment should be evaluated by culture and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Uninfected pregnant women who remain at high risk should be retested during the third trimester. Treatment of gonorrhea reduces HIV shedding and subsequent transmission.

The CDC recommends that patients with gonococcal infections be treated routinely with a regimen effective against chlamydia.

At-risk patients and those in a high-prevalence area should undergo routine screening for STIs. The CDC recommends that men who have sex with men be screened at least annually for gonorrhea at urethral, rectal, and pharyngeal sites for a history of insertive anal, receptive anal, and receptive oral intercourse, respectively. Condom use can reduce the risk of gonorrhea and other STIs. It also reduces the risk of PID by decreasing lower genital tract infections. Intensive counseling also increases adherence to treatment in women and contraceptive use in adolescent males, and decreases nonsexual risky behavior and pregnancy in sexually active adolescent females.

Data Sources: A PubMed search was conducted for gonorrhea-related topics, including clinical reviews, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses. Search terms used were Neisseria gonorrhoeae , gonorrhea, and sexually transmitted infections. Also reviewed were relevant publications from the Cochrane database, National Guideline Clearinghouse, U. Search date: February 1, Already a member or subscriber? Log in.

Mayor is an assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Howard University in Washington, DC, and acts as site director for the residents rotating at Providence Hospital. Address correspondence to Michelle A. Reprints are not available from the authors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Atlanta, Ga. Department of Health and Human Services; Screening for gonorrhea: recommendation statement.

Ann Fam Med. Gonococcal infections in the adult. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Culture of non-genital sites increases the detection of gonorrhea in women. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Ghanem KG.

Conn's Current Therapy Philadelphia, Pa. Soper DE. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol. Etiologies of nongonococcal urethritis: bacteria, viruses, and the association with orogenital exposure. J Infect Dis. Clinical presentations of chlamydial and non-chlamydial reactive arthritis.

Rheumatol Int. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission from the oropharynx to the urethra among men who have sex with men.

Clin Infect Dis. Update on the management of gonorrhea in adults in the United States. Haile Z, Khatua S. Beyond osteoarthritis: recognizing and treating infectious and other inflammatory arthropathies in your practice. Prim Care.

Rice PA. Gonococcal arthritis disseminated gonococcal infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am. Ocular prophylaxis for gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum: reaffirmation recommendation statement.

AHRQ publication no. July Accessed January 17, Evaluation of vaginal infections in adolescent women: can it be done without a speculum? Systematic review: noninvasive testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ann Intern Med. Optimizing treatment of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Emerg Infect Dis. Yates AB. Management of patients with a history of allergy to betalactam antibiotics. Am J Med. Effect of expedited treatment of sex partners on recurrent or persistent gonorrhea or chlamydial infection.

N Engl J Med. Expedited partner therapy. Accessed March 11, Improved effectiveness of partner notification for patients with sexually transmitted infections: systematic review. Repeat infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea among females: a systematic review of the literature. Sex Transm Dis. Chlamydial and gonococcal reinfection among men: a systematic review of data to evaluate the need for retesting. Sex Transm Infect. Reduction of concentration of HIV-1 in semen after treatment of urethritis: implications for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV Chlamydia trachomatis among patients infected with and treated for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.

Gonorrhea and chlamydia in the United States among persons 14 to 39 years of age, to Gonorrhea screening among men who have sex with men: value of multiple anatomic site testing, San Diego, California, — Condom use and the risk of recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, or infertility following an episode of pelvic inflammatory disease.

Am J Public Health. Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions.

Behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections: U. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review for the U. A randomized, controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to prevent sexually transmitted disease among minority women. This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference.

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Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions. Read the Issue. Sign Up Now. Previous: Natural Family Planning. Nov 15, Issue. Diagnosis and Management of Gonococcal Infections. A 15 Fluoroquinolones should not be used to treat gonorrhea in the United States because of the emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. C 18 [corrected] Uncomplicated gonococcal infections of the cervix, urethra, rectum, or pharynx should be treated with a single dose of ceftriaxone Rocephin , mg intramuscularly, and either azithromycin Zithromax , 1 g orally, or doxycycline, mg orally twice daily for seven days.

C 23 , 24 The USPSTF recommends routine screening for gonorrhea in all sexually active women if they are at increased risk of infection, including those who are pregnant.

A 3 The CDC recommends that all men who have sex with men and practice insertive anal intercourse be screened at least annually for urethral gonococcal infection with a urine nucleic acid amplification test.

C 1 , 2 The CDC recommends that all men who have sex with men and practice receptive anal or oral intercourse be screened at least annually for rectal or pharyngeal gonococcal infection with a rectal or pharyngeal nucleic acid amplification swab test. C 1 , 2 The USPSTF recommends high-intensity behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections in all sexually active adolescents and in adults at increased risk.

Table 1. Differential Diagnosis of Gonococcal Infections Diagnosis Causes Cervicitis Bacterial vaginosis Chlamydia trachomatis infection Frequent douching or exposure to another irritant Genital herpes simplex virus infection Mycoplasma genitalium infection Trichomonas vaginalis infection Neonatal conjunctivitis C.

Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Diagnosis of N. Nucleic acid amplification tests NAATs permit testing of the widest range of specimen types and are Food and Drug Administration FDA -approved for use with endocervical, vaginal, and male urethral swabs and urine specimens from females and males.

Unlike culture, NAATs are currently not FDA approved for use in the rectum, pharynx, and conjunctiva; however, some public and large private laboratories [ 4 ] have conducted validation tests to meet Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment requirements, allowing them to perform these tests at pharyngeal and rectal sites.

What is not clear, but is concerning, is that with the diminished use and availability of culture for diagnostic purposes, fewer tests are being performed to detect gonorrhea at rectal and pharyngeal sites. In this issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases , Bernstein et al [ 7 ] demonstrate a 4. The prevalence of gonococcal pharyngeal infection varies according to the population studied and the diagnostic method used for detection.

Specific recommendations include annual tests for gonorrhea and chlamydia on urethral or urine specimens in men who have had insertive intercourse, a test for gonococcal pharyngeal infection in men with orogenital exposure, and a test for gonorrhea and chlamydia rectal infection in men who have had receptive anal intercourse in the previous year [ 12 ]. Adherence to these screening recommendations is an important strategy for gonorrhea control in sexually active MSM, because asymptomatic infection at pharyngeal and rectal sites is common among this population, and gonococcal transmission is efficient with insertive or receptive rectal intercourse and fellatio [ 11 ].

With few effective treatment options and limited screening for pharyngeal infection, the pharynx may not only be a reservoir of gonococcal infection, it may be a reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant gonococcal infection, as well. This could have implications for the prevention and control of gonorrhea in MSM and in heterosexuals who participate in oral-genital sexual practices.

Providers should inquire about oral sexual exposures in MSM; patients reporting such exposures should be tested and, if infection is present, a regimen with enhanced efficacy against pharyngeal infection should be provided [ 12 ]. Could infection in the pharynx, for example, have contributed to the rapid emergence of quinolone-resistant N.

After first becoming established in Hawaii and then in California, QRNG became prevalent in the MSM population throughout the United States [ 14 ], followed by expansion into the heterosexual population a few years later [ 15 ]. Quinolone-resistant N. However, decreased susceptibility of N. Although the CDC conducts national sentinel surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility, surveillance by clinicians is also critical.

Clinicians who identify patients with suspected cephalosporin treatment failure ie, a test result positive for N. Those cases with isolates indicating decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins should be reported to the CDC through state and local public health authorities. Although the study by Bernstein et al [ 7 ] describes the pharynx as a potential reservoir for gonorrhea in MSM, similar studies are warranted in heterosexual populations engaging in receptive oral sexual practices if they have a high prevalence of gonorrhea.

Further progress in the control of gonorrhea will require careful attention to an integrated comprehensive prevention strategy that includes enhancement of surveillance systems to monitor antimicrobial resistance; new approaches to maximize the benefit of available antimicrobials, such as combination therapy; novel antimicrobials; adherence to screening guidelines for those at high risk for infection; and prompt and effective treatment for infected persons and their sexual partners.

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Hillard Weinstock. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Kimberly A. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, Search ADS.

Emerging antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae : urgent need to strengthen prevention strategies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinic-based testing for rectal and pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections by community-based organizations—five cities, United States, Testing for sexually transmitted diseases in U.

Cite This Article. We describe a sexual network consisting of 1 nonbinary-gendered participant and 2 male and 4 female participants in Australia, Six of 7 participants had oropharyngeal gonorrhea in the absence of urogenital gonorrhea.

This observation supports a new paradigm of gonorrhea transmission in which oropharyngeal gonorrhea can be transmitted through tongue kissing. Oropharyngeal gonorrhea is considered to be acquired primarily from an infected penis during oral sex 1. However, male urethral gonorrhea is usually symptomatic 2 — 4 , prompting men to seek treatment soon after symptoms appear 5 , resulting in short duration of infectivity and low point prevalence.

Thus, infected penises are unlikely to be the source to explain the observed high prevalence of oropharyngeal gonorrhea 6 , 7. However, investigating whether kissing can lead to gonorrhea transmission has been difficult because kissing often occurs concurrently with other sexual acts We describe a sexual network of 1 nonbinary, 2 male, and 4 female participants who were tested for gonorrhea at genital and oropharyngeal sites in early to explore gonorrhea transmission dynamics.

We performed whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic analyses on available samples Appendix. Recalled accounts of sexual activity were consistent between participants. No participant reported symptoms of gonorrhea, and none used antimicrobial drugs during the relevant period. Neisseria gonorrhoeae diagnoses among participants of a sexual network, Australia, On day 10, the index patient participant 1 [P1], nonbinary gender, assigned female sex at birth sought screening for sexually transmitted infections at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre.

Though asymptomatic, P1 tested positive for oropharyngeal gonorrhea and negative for urogenital gonorrhea. Between the previous negative test and day 0, P1 had sex with 4 men besides their primary male sexual partner P2 Figure.

These 4 other male sexual partners subsequently tested negative for gonorrhea; however, we were not able to confirm what anatomic sites were tested. On day 0, P1 had tongue kissed P3 female and had tongue kissed and had reciprocal orogenital sex without condoms and penovaginal sex without condoms with P2. On day 16, P3 tested positive for oropharyngeal gonorrhea and negative for urogenital gonorrhea.

She had not been tested for gonorrhea in the past 4 years because, until a recent break-up, she had been in a long-term monogamous relationship. On day 6, before P1 underwent testing, P2 sought routine asymptomatic screening for sexually transmitted infections at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and tested positive for oropharyngeal gonorrhea and negative for urogenital and anal gonorrhea. On day 0, P2 had sex with P4 female , consisting of tongue kissing, reciprocal orogenital sex without condoms, and penovaginal sex with condoms.

On day 11, P4 tested positive for oropharyngeal gonorrhea and negative for urogenital and anal gonorrhea. Eleven days before day 0, P4 had tested negative for oropharyngeal and urogenital gonorrhea. P2 and P4 had had sex weekly for 5 months before day 0. On day 0, P2 also had sex with P5 female , consisting of tongue kissing, oropenile sex without condoms, and penovaginal sex with condoms.

On day 11, P5 tested positive for oropharyngeal and negative for urogenital gonorrhea. On day 7, P2 had sex with P6 female , consisting of tongue kissing, reciprocal orogenital sex without condoms, and penovaginal sex with condoms. On day 17, P6 tested positive for urogenital gonorrhea but negative for oropharyngeal gonorrhea.

On day 10, P1 had sex with P7 male , consisting of penovaginal sex with condoms, tongue kissing, and oropenile sex without condoms.

P1 and P7 had sex weekly for 2 months before day 0. On day 14, P7 tested positive for oropharyngeal and negative for urogenital gonorrhea. His previous test was 4 years prior. Two N. Both were N. This report describes a sexual network consisting of 1 nonbinary participant and 2 male and 4 female participants, of which 6 participants had oropharyngeal gonorrhea in the absence of urogenital gonorrhea.

Two gonorrhea samples were available for genomic analysis and were highly related genomically. No men in this network had urethral gonorrhea, suggesting that the oropharynx-to-penis route has a lower transmission probability than tongue kissing. However, recall was consistent between participants, suggesting that their recall was accurate. Accumulating evidence suggests that tongue kissing might be a common mode of gonorrhea transmission 12 — The observation that expectorated saliva from persons with oropharyngeal gonorrhea contains high loads of N.

The sexual network described here adds to this evidence. We also highlight the need for routine screening for oropharyngeal gonorrhea for all persons with multiple sexual partners. His main research interests are the epidemiology and prevention of gonorrhea and HIV prevention.

We acknowledge the extraordinary generosity of the participants included in this report for giving permission and taking the time to share this sensitive information. Table of Contents — Volume 25, Number 7—July Vincent J. Highlight and copy the desired format. Section Navigation. Bradshaw, Eric P. Chow, Deborah A. Williamson, and Christopher K.

Cornelisse, C. Bradshaw, E. Chow, C. Abstract We describe a sexual network consisting of 1 nonbinary-gendered participant and 2 male and 4 female participants in Australia, The Study. Figure Figure. Clinical spectrum of pharyngeal gonococcal infection. N Engl J Med. DOI PubMed. A trial of minocycline given after exposure to prevent gonorrhea.

Asymptomatic and symptomatic urethral gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men attending a sexual health service. Clin Microbiol Infect. Is screening asymptomatic men who have sex with men for urethral gonorrhoea worthwhile? Sex Health. Early presentation of symptomatic individuals is critical in controlling sexually transmissible infections. Increased detection of pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men after transition from culture to nucleic acid amplification testing.

Sex Transm Dis. Effect of nucleic acid amplification testing on detection of extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydial infections in men who have sex with men sexually transmitted disease clinic patients.

Frequent transmission of gonorrhea in men who have sex with men. Emerg Infect Dis. Epidemiology and treatment of oropharyngeal gonorrhea. Ann Intern Med. Transfer of gonococcal pharyngitis by kissing? Br J Vener Dis. Risk factors for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men: an age-matched case-control study. Sex Transm Infect. Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission among men who have sex with men: an anatomical site-specific mathematical model evaluating the potential preventive impact of mouthwash.

Evidence for a new paradigm of gonorrhoea transmission: cross-sectional analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections by anatomical site in both partners in 60 male couples. Concordance of gonorrhoea of the rectum, pharynx and urethra in same-sex male partnerships attending a sexual health service in Melbourne, Australia.

BMC Infect Dis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterial DNA load in the pharynges and saliva of men who have sex with men. J Clin Microbiol. Comments character s remaining. Comment submitted successfully, thank you for your feedback. Page created: June 17, The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.

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