Lactation attract bear-Warning about camping with newborns in bear country - July - BabyCenter Canada

NCBI Bookshelf. Mucignat-Caretta C, editor. Neurobiology of Chemical Communication. Newly born mammals have to reach the source of milk as promptly as possible to ensure uninterrupted mother-to-offspring transfer of hydration, nutrients, and energy. With these matters and commodities, mothers also pass on to their offspring different levels of chemosensory information that reveal her identity, the location of the mammae, and the composition of milk.

Lactation attract bear

Lactation attract bear

Lactation attract bear

Lactation attract bear

Lactation attract bear

A mother bear with a litter of two or three Bare naked spanking clips could be producing three or four quarts of milk per day — a difficult metabolic feat to sustain. And there was also a point where I absolutely did not want her there at all. Thanks to Ben Kilham for photo op. Did you take this photo? A joy of being surrounded by the people they attratc and who love them, while they bring the next Lactation attract bear of love into the world.

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Daily BBW Porn This is the mechanism by which milk is transported from the breast alveoli to the nipple. Oxytocin stimulates the muscles surrounding bead breast to squeeze out the milk. Lactation attract bear Development Lactation Lactation attract bear. After about days of age intake per unit metabolic body mass started to decrease, as other foods were consumed. D One cub in their first year of breeding, usually two thereafter. Spermatogenesis spermatogonium spermatocyte spermatid sperm Oogenesis oogonium oocyte ootid ovum Germ cell gonocyte gamete. Although ovulation is less frequent during lactation, it does occasionally occur. B A captive individual lived to 31 years. Categories : Animal physiology Breastfeeding Exocrine system Glands Reproduction in mammals Milk Secondary sexual characteristics Breast milk Human female endocrine atfract.

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  • Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
  • Lactation , secretion and yielding of milk by females after giving birth.
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  • Active gestation lasts for days.

Log in Sign up. Home Community July Warning about camping with newborns in bear country. If any of you moms out there love camping as much as I do, you may be thinking of going camping with your newborn. My husband and I love camping and are hoping to go before the baby is born if not after. My husband's aunt is Meti and from the Yukon and she warned me that newborns crying sound exactly like bear cubs crying, so if a bear hears your baby it will come to investigate.

The bear will either be curious, or angry thinking it's cubs are in danger. Her husband confirmed this by saying he has heard young bears calling out in the woods and it does sound just like a newborn. I've been doing a lot of reading on camping with children and had never heard this before, so I wanted to pass this along. We may be choosing a different camping ground this summer. Add a comment. I've tented with my son since he was 3 weeks old!

But I usually stick to provincial campgrounds when I go with him and leave the backwoods or Rec sites for my adult camping trips! But that's interesting to know! So I just youtubed it and I can see what they are talking about.

Not exact obviously but pretty close. Good tips! I doubt we will be camping this year. I'm in Ontario and where I camp it's mainly just black bears which are like poodles compared to grizzly bears lol.

This is slightly off topic We set up camp then drove into town and on our way out of the park saw our first wild bear run across the road in front of us. It was exiting but a bit freaky. We had these loud ass annoying neighbours with a bunch of dogs near us. The next morning all we hear is "bear! It was one of their stupid dogs names! Seriously people if you name your dog bear-maybe don't go camping with it at park with recent bear sightings!

I put the story on Facebook and said I was going to name my first child bomb and then take it to the airport and call it's name repeatedly lol. That's hilarious! Bear is such a common dog's name. I knew people who named their dog Fire. Their poor neighbours My sister and aunt have both taken their newborns camping. Good for you if you do go!

I want to go so badly as we do every year but we are going to wait until the baby is 1. My sister said the hardest part was the miskitoes I don't think bears even crossed her mind.

I would probably still to provincial parks if you are going to tent camp, park rangers will let you know if there have been any bear spottings. LMAO Fire! Of geeze. I saw a comedian once on tv say he was going to call his dog "Ricola" so he could call it and sound like the guy in th cough drop commercials lol.

We are avid campers but my due until August 1. We won't be taking baby until the following May which is usually our first camp of the year. We we are going camping the may long weekend of this year. It should be interesting haha. Log in or sign up to post a comment! Recent posts in July Ask a question or share your story Start a post. Are you sure you want to delete? Enter your due date or child's birthday mm Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec dd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 yyyy Trying to conceive?

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In areas with poor food supplies litters may be produced three or four years apart. During hibernation, milk intake per unit of metabolic body mass kg 0. Daily BBW Porn Sex Tube Here Submit Feedback. The milk ejection reflex also called let-down reflex is not always consistent, especially at first.

Lactation attract bear

Lactation attract bear

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Average litter size is smaller in areas where food resources are poorer than where food availability is good. Litter sizes also tend to be higher in eastern North America than in western North America.

Black bears may produce successive litters at an interval of one year if cubs are lost before the breeding season but females usually undergo lactational anoestrus and rarely mate while raising cubs. In areas with good food resources females may produce their first cubs when three years old or in rare situations, two years old , while in areas with poorer resources, females may not have their first litter until six to ten years of age. Females continue to produce cubs into their mid-twenties.

Males are capable of breeding at three years of age but tend to be less successful than older bears; older males exclude younger males from breeding, particularly in areas with high population densities of adult males. The testes reach their maximum size and weight during the breeding season, regress following the breeding season and recrudesce in the late hibernation period.

Mortality of cubs and yearlings is increased if food resources berries and mast fail. In heavily hunted populations there is a faster drop in male survival.

Few bears die from starvation during hibernation, but yearlings with low body weights particularly under 10 kg at emergence from the den may die in spring before nutritious foods become available. References are available in detailed literature reports below To Top of Page Go to general American black bear page.

To Top of Page Go to general American black bear page. Parturition: -- Seasonality: Mainly January and February, usually while the female hibernates. B January to February. D January. Cubs could easily be detected from outside the den by listening for sounds of whimpering and nursing. One bear from Yellowstone National Park, which arrived at the National Zoological Park, Washington in the autumn, gave birth the following 4th February; a female in a zoo at Wichita, Kansas, cubbed on 31st January and a female from Tennessee cubbed in early February.

Cubs usually nurse for about a year, but can survive without their mother from about five or 5. B Bear cubs are born in a relatively undeveloped state. D Females reach adult size at three to four years, males not until five years. D Black bear cubs reached a crown-rump length of mm mean by one month. By six weeks, upper and lower back teeth can be through the gum. Once the milk was finished, they would start growling and attacking one another. B Two cubs hand-reared from mid-April decreased their milk intake from the beginning of June onwards.

Meat such as ground beef was taken, but neither meat nor fish was eaten in large quantities until the cubs were seven-eight months old. Survival was similar to those released close to their mothers.

Survival occurred despite several bears having injuries such as foot lacerations, foot amputations and in one case a fractured mandibular symphysis. Three cubs released on islands following a period of hand-rearing were able to survive despite a lack of experience of foraging for food prior to release. Several cubs survived the winter alone. Five other cubs released in similar circumstances did not become nuisances; one was recovered the year after release, the others were not recovered.

They nurse, rest, climb, play-wrestle and leap through the snow, at a time when adults and yearlings are still very lethargic. Wildpro Species Chemicals Physical " How to References are available in detailed literature reports below.

Breeding Season. June to July. D Generally May to July; as late as August in southern areas. Peak June to mid-July. B June to early July. B June to July. Females with swollen vulvas were noted from about a week before to two weeks after the period of observed pairings.

SUMMARY: Oestrus may last for as short a time as one day or up to 11 days, as indicated by the number of days for which a female was willing to be mated in a zoo setting, but is usually less than five days in the wild. Oestrus lasts only one to three days.

B Mature adult female bears in a large enclosure with male bears about 80 female and male bears in a 30 hectare enclosure were observed to have oestrus lasting for a range of one to 11 days one, two, ten and 11 days for four females , as indicated by the number of days on which they were willing to mate.

D Black bears appear to be induced ovulators. Experimentally, it was shown that seven of eight mature adult females housed in a large enclosure with males and observed to mate developed corpora lutea, while only one of seven such bears kept in a separate enclosure without access to males developed corpora lutea.

Females kept from access to males also had significantly lower serum progesterone levels than those which had access to males. Females became attractive to males before they became receptive to mounting; the total period of attractiveness, including the receptive period, lasted up to five days. About days, but with delayed implantation and development of the embryo only for about 10 weeks.

B - days. B Seven months. D Pseudopregnancy, failure of implantation, and resorption of fetuses may occur. D Total pregnancy 6. This minimum weight is about 68 kg in Minnesota and Ontario, but further south where the species may be smaller normally, females of lower weights than this can breed successfully. If the food supply is poor, implanted embryos may be lost. Neonatal Development. Litter Size. One to five, usually two. B One to six but typically two or three. D One cub in their first year of breeding, usually two thereafter.

B Usually two, range one to four. In some areas a female may produce fewer cubs in her first litter than subsequently. Analysis of data from a number of studies indicated a mean litter size of 2. Litter size also correlates with both age and weight of the mother, primarily with weight: " heavier females which tend to be older are producing larger litters. One to four years between litters. D In general, females undergo lactational anoestrus, but occasionally a female raising cubs will mate.

D If nursing is interrupted, follicular maturation and oestrus will occur. D Two years if the female comes into oestrus after breaking up from her previous cubs when they are about 17 months old. B The normal pattern is every two years in areas of adequate food supplies. In areas with poor food supplies litters may be produced three or four years apart.

A female who loses her cubs early may produce cubs again the following year; cubs produced in successive years have also been reported in Arizona in females who had not lost their previous cubs. SUMMARY: Cubs may be weaned at six to eight months, but a female was observed allowing yearling cubs to suckle in the spring after emerging from the den, and a female who had split up from her yearling cubs was found to be lactating slightly when captured during the mating season.

Weaned at about six to eight months. B About one year. B 1. B A female which reunited with her cubs in the summer, after the family had split up in the normal manner in the spring, was found to be lactating slightly when captured during the mating season. D , J For eight black bear cubs at the time of peak lactation 75 days with the cubs weighing mean 2.

High fat, low water content and relatively low protein content milk may be associated with lactation during fasting hibernation , preserving maternal water and lean mass. Since oxytocin release occurs during sexual intercourse , milk ejection in lactating women has been observed on such occasions.

Disturbance of oxytocin secretion, or of the milk-ejection reflex, stops lactation just as readily as a lack of the hormones necessary for milk production, for the milk in the breast is then not extractable by the infant. Many instances of nursing failure are due to a lack of milk ejection in stressful circumstances; fortunately, treatment with oxytocin, coupled with the reassurance gained from a successful nursing, is ordinarily successful in overcoming the difficulty.

Suckling can initiate lactation in nonpregnant women. A baby who had lost his mother was suckled by his year-old grandmother, who had borne her last child 18 years before. The grandmother produced milk after a few days and continued to nurse the baby until he was a year old and could walk. Rarely, lactation has been reported to set in after operations on the chest; in such instances it is attributed to injury or irritation of the nerves in this region.

Such observations argue against the possibility that lactation continues simply as a consequence of emptying the breasts. Milk can be regarded as an emulsion of fat globules in a colloidal solution of protein together with other substances in true solution.

Two constituents of milk—the protein casein and milk sugar, or lactose —are not found elsewhere in the body. The nutritional status of the mother is important throughout this period. The use of drugs or smoking by the mother can adversely affect the infant; many drugs are secreted in breast milk, and smoking reduces breast milk volume and decreases infant growth rates.

The milk released from the breast when lactation starts differs in composition from the mature milk produced when lactation is well established. The early milk, or colostrum , is rich in essential amino acids , the protein building blocks essential for growth; it also contains the proteins that convey immunity to some infections from mother to young, although not in such quantity as among domestic animals.

The human infant gains this type of immunity largely within the uterus by the transfer of these antibody proteins through the placenta; the young baby seldom falls victim to mumps , measles , diphtheria , or scarlet fever.

For a short time after birth, proteins can be absorbed from the intestine without digestion, so that the acquisition of further immunity is facilitated. The growth of harmful viruses and bacteria in the intestines is probably inhibited by immune factors in human milk.

After childbirth the composition of milk gradually changes; within four or five days the colostrum has become transitional milk, and mature milk is secreted some 14 days after delivery. There is no typical age at which human infants are weaned, for this varies from country to country and among the social classes of a nation.

In India women in the higher socioeconomic groups tend to use artificial feeding, while the reverse relationship holds in Britain and the United States. With the reduced demand of the baby, lactation slowly declines and stops. Estrogen treatment is often used to suppress lactation, and the high doses used may accomplish this; but there is often a rebound effect at the end of treatment. Lactation may be slightly depressed when oral contraceptives are being taken in high dosage.

Although ovulation is less frequent during lactation, it does occasionally occur. Breast-feeding should not, therefore, be used as a method of contraception. Menstruation usually resumes within six to eight weeks in women who are not breast-feeding; the length of its absence varies in women who breast-feed.

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The Mother Bear Doula – An Honest Guide to Pregnancy, Childbirth, Breastfeeding, and Beyond

NCBI Bookshelf. Mucignat-Caretta C, editor. Neurobiology of Chemical Communication. Newly born mammals have to reach the source of milk as promptly as possible to ensure uninterrupted mother-to-offspring transfer of hydration, nutrients, and energy. With these matters and commodities, mothers also pass on to their offspring different levels of chemosensory information that reveal her identity, the location of the mammae, and the composition of milk.

Mammals are indeed exposed to an outstandingly powerful selective pressure while they are bottlenecked through birth and weaning. These windows in early development concentrate all types of challenges, and maladaptive responses to them in the female-offspring dyad are costly for neonatal viability e.

The causes of such high mortality rates are not known precisely, but the first steps in infant-mother adjustment bear great momentum. For example, a high rate of termborn infants display nonoptimal milk intake on the day of birth and on day 3 i. Such insufficient intake during the first feeds, if not handled rapidly, can lead to excessive weight loss, dehydration, and threat to viability when adequate care is lacking Cooper et al.

Early breast milk intake was associated with reduced mortality caused by infection, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract e. Other mammalian species show the same trend.

For example, piglets incur high mortality, especially when colostrum intake is lacking Andersen et al. Another case is the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus , a species that has minimized direct maternal investment although in the wild, indirect investment is high in excavating a burrow and lining it with an insulating vegetal material and hair.

This limited access to milk must be added to an intense sibling rivalry Drummond et al. While pups survive one sucking failure, they are jeopardized after two such failures. But as they do interchange nipples over a same nursing episode Bautista et al.

Despite generally successful suckling, pups incur notable mortality in the days following birth days 0—7 and around weaning days 21—28 , especially when females are primiparous Coureaud et al. Thus, mammalian mother-infant dyads are exposed to strong selective pressure in the days and weeks following delivery.

In this chapter, we will consider how females and neonates coevolved chemosensory means for mutual adaptive ends at the start of their postnatal relationship. Mother-neonate exchanges are diversely organized among mammals Clutton-Brock ; Gubernick and Klopfer ; Numan et al.

While some species give birth to altricial neonates whose sensorium is restricted to these modalities e. Mammary chemosignalization has also followed indirect ways, females in many species and newborns in all species spreading extramammary substrates on their nipples when they groom or suck.

These various sources of chemical cues or messages emerged on or around nipples under different functional forces. While some of them may convey exclusive communicative functions e. The evolutionary specialization of nipples has indeed co-opted exocrine structures to protect cutaneous and ductal entries from bacterial invasion, create the airtight seal necessary for the efficacy of suction, and relieve the strong friction of the lips of sucking neonates Schaal et al.

Other mammary substrates are secreted or excreted by glands distributed in, on, or adjacent to, the mammary structure. The whole range of elementary skin glands is represented in the areola-nipple region, including eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous glands. In some species, the mammary area is additionally endowed with sophisticated glandular specializations, working either in close functional link with lactation e. The substrates released onto the nipple-areolar skin can be mingled with those brought here from extramammary sources.

These exogenous substrates vary according to the species considered: in some rodents and carnivores, parturient females actively lick their nipple-lines, labeling them with a mix of urogenital and amniotic fluids, blood, saliva, and all kinds of secretions from oral or facial glands. Nursing females also often alternate licking their offspring and their own ventral fur, spreading on themselves infant-specific odor traces excretions or secretions from anal or urogenital sources mingled with own substrates saliva.

Further, while sucking, newborns stain nipples with mixed amniotic fluid and saliva, and later with mixed saliva, milk and other facial substrates from lachrymal, nasal, facial, or ear glands. To further expand this biochemical puzzle, both mammary and extramammary substrates certainly depend on surface processes involving salivary enzymes or the local commensal microflora.

Finally, local conditions of heat, humidity, and texture of the mammary epidermis are an additional way to differentiate emitted odorants in terms of volatility the dermis underlying mammary structures is highly vascularized, provoking higher surface temperature. To sum up, multifarious biological substrates and processes make the chemistry that females present to their offspring on their mammaries and nipples complex. It should thus be a perceptual challenge for newborns to navigate through this chemosensory mosaic.

We do not fully understand how mammalian neonates perceive and analyze the olfactory scene that is associated with the mammary structure. But, by staying alive, the majority of them prove their competence to orient adequately from the very first exposure to a nipple. Neonates dispose of several ways to make sense of the chemosensory complexity of mammaries, some being shaped by exposure and learning effects, others working independently from learning.

Opportunistic processes involving learning occur in all species examined so far, whereas unconditional processes have been evidenced in only some species. These differentiable perceptual mechanisms may be dedicated to the processing of different sets of compounds within the complex mixture composing mammary chemosignals see below.

Neonatal mammals are outstandingly efficient learning machines. Positive means here that these stimuli tap into the approach system of behavior. This avid information intake in the context of nursing has chiefly been investigated in the rat and mouse, and related findings can be summarized as follows for reviews, see Alberts ; Blass and Teicher ; Brake et al. Milk itself supports the establishment of learned odor associations e. Finally, compounds conveyed in biological secretions may instantly potentiate the learning of co-occurring odor cues e.

The learning abilities of neonate rodents are certainly generalizable to all mammalian neonates, although only a handful of species has been investigated in detail.

For example, rabbit pups can learn from the first day after birth any nonspecific odorant associated with nursing Allingham et al. After single odor-nursing pairing, such pups express the typical sequence of nipple searching and grasping on an unfamiliar female painted with the same odor Hudson But the one-session learning of an odor associated with sucking appears only effective during the first 4 postnatal days Kindermann et al.

Thus, the timing and the act itself of sucking are efficient promoters of odor learning in rabbit newborns, and any arbitrary odor cue sticking on a nipple can be assigned incentive value for the next suckling episodes Hudson et al.

Sucking can also instigate learning of odorants associated with the breast or milk in human newborns e. But sucking is not a necessary condition as mere exposure or contingence with touch-induced arousal suffices to change the incentive value of initially irrelevant stimuli Balogh and Porter ; Sullivan et al.

Such acquisition of odor cues in human infants seems also subject to modulation by the birth process or the timing of its occurrence relative to birth Romantshik et al. Such predisposed processes designate perceptual-motor loops generalized at the species level that are released from birth by stimuli that did not appear to occur in the prior developmental environment. Predisposed responses to odor substrates have rarely been investigated in mammalian neonates, but these rare cases are of particular interest.

In general, odor stimuli recruit different response levels in neonates. When presented for the first time, novel odorants elicit sniffing or increased respiration, generally followed by withdrawal. In contrast, certain odorants do release appetitive oronasal investigation in absence of prior direct exposure to them. Such immediate oral grasping response is observed with fresh milk or its odor. For example, human newborns respond to the odors of the lactating breast or milk by positive head orientation and appetitive mouthing regardless of the rate of prior exposure to the breast Delaunay-El Allam et al.

Further, premature neonates react by increased mouthing and sucking movements to conspecific milk odor Bingham et al. These responses of newborns to conspecific milk odor are not easily overcome by newly learned odorants. Indeed, when tested for relative preference between human milk odor and an artificial chamomile odor spread on the areolae at each feed since birth, breastfed newborns display equivalent orientation to either stimulus Delaunay-El Allam et al.

In summary, the behavior of mammalian neonates appears to be driven by multiple olfactory mechanisms underlain either by plastic, experience-dependent processes or by predisposed processes.

It is clear that the extrafast odor learning abilities of newborn mammals make it difficult to characterize predisposed perceptual processes, as would be required if pheromones were involved, such compounds being operationally defined to imply no or minimal experiential induction of their biological activity see next section.

As noted in Section In Section Involatile proteins, lipids, or hydrocarbon may in this way act as carriers or precursors of volatile ligands, or they can protract the emission duration of associated volatile compounds. But involatile compounds do also work as chemosignals as recently shown in murine main urinary proteins MUPs that encode individual identity Hurst et al.

Another potential perceptual split of complex mammary odors may separate individual-specific from species-specific components. Some odor compounds reflect idiosyncratic traits of the female e. For example, rabbit or human newborns reveal that conspecific milk can carry odor cues related to the individual mother or to any lactating female of the species Coureaud et al.

A third divide in the perception of social odors in general and in mammary odors in particular concerns the notions of cue and signal. It has repeatedly been proposed e. Mammary odor cues would include compounds derived from maternal physiology diet, wastes, hormonal state, stress without added cost involved to produce them. In contrast, mammary odor signals would designate compounds that may be released by specialized structures, exploit specific response biases in the receiver, and evolved for a specific signaling function or were secondarily recycled for such a function.

In the context of mammary odor mixtures, this would imply that rare signals are embedded in a system of abundant cues, and that looking for a signal is like seeking a needle in a haystack of cues. The task is even trickier when cues and signals, although they differ in the developmental process leading to their activity, release functionally equivalent responses.

While odor cues are typically constituted of circumstantial and variable odorants, odor signals are relatable to the concept of the pheromone. Once chemically identified, a behaviorally active odor compound can be screened to assess whether it can be construed as a pheromone. To prevent latent confusion on the nature of the compounds involved as well as on the nature of elicited responses in mammals, Beauchamp et al. Milk is nevertheless physicochemically and biochemically multifaceted, and the fraction s responsible for its chemosensory activity in newborns is are difficult to characterize.

A first step in reducing the complexity of milk has been to analyze its volatile fraction. In addition to volatile compounds, numerous nonvolatile lipids, proteins, or polysaccharides are chemosensorily active by themselves or act as carriers of volatile compounds e.

Thus, the chemical dissection of the behaviorally-active components of milk is a complicated endeavor, and it has so far been carried out in only few mammalian species. For representative species of each of these groups, evidence for structures located in, on, or around the mammaries or for significant olfactory indices produced endogenously in lacteal secretions or exogenously in extramammary substrates will be surveyed.

An odor factor from the ventral skin of lactating dams attracts rat or mouse pups. The specific source of this odor factor is unknown, but nipples are important although not exclusive; see Singh and Hofer When rat nipples are washed with organic solvents, the resulting solution distillated, and the distillate then applied on a nipple rendered inactive by prior washing, pups resume oral grasping of it Teicher and Blass , Rat and mouse nipples are endowed with apical sebaceous glands opening into the ductal ostia Toyoshima et al.

The surface of the nipple changes drastically during lactation with increasing furrowy texture Toyoshima et al. When rat milk was painted on olfactorily inactivated nipples, normal nipple grasping response was not restored in 8—9-day-old pups Singh and Hofer , but this experiment was too imprecisely reported to be conclusive.

However, Logan et al. In Logan et al. Cesarean section; milk stimulus: fresh vs. Based on the fact that rat and mouse females self-lick during gestation, parturition, and lactation Roth and Rosenblatt , saliva, and amniotic fluid are presumably spread ventrally. Positive reactions to birth fluids are indeed observed in rat and mouse newborns Hepper ; Kodama , ; Kodama and Smotherman ; Mendez-Gallardo and Robinson

Lactation attract bear

Lactation attract bear

Lactation attract bear