Law sodomy texas-Sodomy laws in the United States - Wikipedia

Lawrence v. Texas , U. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that American laws prohibiting private homosexual activity between consenting adults are unconstitutional. Wade , had found the U. Constitution provides, even though it is not explicitly enumerated.

Law sodomy texas

Law sodomy texas

Hartford Courant. Shawnee County Kansas canceled a contract with a company to collect property taxes because the company Law sodomy texas domestic partners. Retrieved December 21, Near Austin, Texas, Williamson County denied Apple Computer a Law sodomy texas tax incentive to build a new plant because the company recognizes domestic partners, said to be a violation of Texas' sodomy law the Laww later changed its mind, under heavy pressure from then Governor Ann Richards. No statute banning sodomy.

Barley legal gay sex vids. 16 Comments

Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage. State, 60 the same court rejected the contention that two teenagers who witnessed a consensual act of fellatio on a third teenager were accomplices to the act. B information or material provided by a third party in response to the disclosure of the visual material. Retrieved December 21, It specified that "every other felony, misdemeanor, or offence not provided for by this act, may and shall be punished as heretofore[. TexasU. Constitution provides, even though it is not explicitly enumerated. The New York Times. Justice John S. Law sodomy texas Nation. Rosenthal, representing Harris County, TX argued Surreal life nude pics a brief to the court that morality " Can we count on you? Wong Kim Ark Perez v. Truman Law sodomy texas, and became effective on May 31,

T he Texas legislature has ended another busy session, sending bills to the governor that would ban red-light traffic cameras, end regulation of the plumbing industry , make it easier to dine outdoors with a dog, carry brass knuckles, and possess a gun inside a rented apartment and a place of worship.

  • By Ave Mince-Didier.
  • B the penetration of the genitals or the anus of another person with an object.

Jump to navigation Skip navigation. The decision in Lawrence v. Texas is one of a mere handful of cases since the American revolution involving two adults - straight or gay - actually prosecuted for being intimate in private. Originally, sodomy laws were part of a larger body of law - derived from church law - designed to prevent nonprocreative sexuality anywhere, and any sexuality outside of marriage.

Sodomy laws began to be used in a new way, distinctly against gay people, in the late 's. As the young gay rights movement began to make headway, and the social condemnation of being gay began to weaken, social conservatives began to invoke sodomy laws as a justification for discrimination. In nine states, sodomy laws were explicitly rewritten so that they only applied to gay people.

Kansas was the first state to do that in In two states, Maryland and Oklahoma, courts decided that sodomy laws could not be applied to private heterosexual conduct, leaving what amounted to same-sex only laws in effect. In many other states, including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Virginia and Washington, government agencies and courts treated sodomy laws that, as written, applied to all couples, straight and gay, as if they were aimed at gay people.

These laws were used against gay people in three ways. First, they were used to limit the ability of gay people to raise children. They've also been used to justify refusing to let gay people adopt Florida, Mississippi and refusing to let gay people become foster parents Arkansas, Missouri. Second, the laws have been used to justify firing gay people, or denying gay people jobs. The idea was explained by the F. In , in Bowers v.

Hardwick, the U. Supreme Court decided that the U. That meant, the F. After the U. Supreme Court said in in Romer v. Evans, which struck down a Colorado constitutional amendment that forbade gay rights laws that states could not discriminate against gay people on the basis of "disapproval," the argument was harder to make. But that didn't stop Georgia's Attorney General from successfully using the state's sodomy law as a justification for refusing to hire a lesbian, or the Bowers decision from being offered as a justification for firing a lesbian x-ray technician in a Washington state case last year.

Third, the laws have been used in public debate, to justify denying gay people equal treatment and to discredit LGBT voices. In Utah, the sodomy law was used to justify not protecting gay people from hate crimes. In Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi and Texas they've been used to justify various proposals to ban adoption or foster care, sometimes successfully.

Sodomy laws are regularly invoked in civil rights debates: from a reason not to recognize domestic partnerships in Kalamazoo, Michigan the argument was rejected , to a reason to give "sodomy states" the right to "opt out" of a federal law banning employment discrimination which hasn't even come to a floor vote in Congress since the mid 90's. Near Austin, Texas, Williamson County denied Apple Computer a promised tax incentive to build a new plant because the company recognizes domestic partners, said to be a violation of Texas' sodomy law the county later changed its mind, under heavy pressure from then Governor Ann Richards.

Shawnee County Kansas canceled a contract with a company to collect property taxes because the company recognized domestic partners. The county Treasurer said that was a violation of Kansas's sodomy law.

All this should change with the Lawrence decision. Lawrence only directly invalidates sodomy laws in the four states that have laws that only apply to gay people: Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri and Kansas. But the equal protection clause forbids subtle discrimination just as much as it forbids obvious discrimination.

And there isn't much that is subtle about the government saying that a sodomy law justifies taking your children away because you are gay. Either the law in fact applies to everybody-in which case, it provides no justification for treating gay people differently at all-or it applies just to gay people-in which case, it cannot survive today's ruling. Know your rights.

Why Sodomy Laws Matter. Facebook Twitter Reddit Email Print. Sodomy Laws Are Aimed at Gay People in the 70's Sodomy laws began to be used in a new way, distinctly against gay people, in the late 's. Losing a job, or worse, losing your family isn't.

Take Action Now.

Lawrence v. Rehearing denied July 20, In a third case raising the same issue the prosecutors and trial courts must have been remiss at keeping up with case law in the state , Frazier v. In the district court, Judge Jerry Buchmeyer wrote an exhaustive and very pro-Gay opinion that found the law to be unconstitutional as an invasion of privacy and a denial of equal protection of the law. LGBT in Texas. Rhodes Wood v. Reed Frontiero v.

Law sodomy texas

Law sodomy texas

Law sodomy texas

Law sodomy texas. Homosexual laws

He continued: "Let me be clear that I have nothing against homosexuals, or any other group, promoting their agenda through normal democratic means. Justice Thomas wrote in a separate, two-paragraph dissent that the law the Court struck down was "uncommonly silly", a phrase from Justice Potter Stewart 's dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut , but he voted to uphold it as he could find "no general right of privacy" or relevant liberty in the Constitution. He added that if he were a member of the Texas legislature he would vote to repeal the law.

President Bush's press secretary Ari Fleischer refused to comment on the decision, noting only that the administration had not filed a brief in the case. As governor, Bush had opposed repeal of the Texas sodomy provision, which he called a "symbolic gesture of traditional values". The Lambda Legal's lead attorney in the case, Ruth Harlow , stated in an interview after the ruling that "the court admitted its mistake in , admitted it had been wrong then Professor Laurence Tribe has written that Lawrence "may well be remembered as the Brown v.

Board of Education of gay and lesbian America". The end result of Lawrence v. Texas was "like the Roe v. Wade of the homosexual issue", [58] [59] according to Peter LaBarbera of Culture and Family Institute and Americans for Truth about Homosexuality , an organization recognized as a homophobic hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center.

Lawrence invalidated age of consent laws that differed based on sexual orientation. In Muth v. Frank , following Lawrence a man convicted of criminal behavior by having an incestuous relationship in Wisconsin appealed his ruling in an attempt to apply the logic of sexual privacy in Lawrence. The case was distinguished because parties were not similarly situated since there is in the latter case an enhanced possibility of genetic mutation of a possible offspring as suggested by geneticists who were witnesses at the trial.

In Martin v. Ziherl , the Supreme Court of Virginia ruled the state's fornication law unconstitutional relying on Lawrence and the right to privacy.

The Connecticut Supreme Court rejected an argument based on Lawrence that a high school teacher had a constitutional right to engage in sexual activity with his consent-aged students. The court rejected the teacher's privacy and liberty arguments in the context of an "inherently coercive relationship wherein consent might not easily be refused".

Upon rehearing Williams v. According to Leighann Lassiter, director of animal abuse for the Humane Society of the United States , the Lawrence ruling that struck down all statutes in the United States prohibiting consensual human sexual conduct can also block prosecution of bestiality.

Issues stem from several states that include human sexual conduct and bestiality in the same "anti-sodomy" statute. A few months later, on November 18, , the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that same-sex couples have a right to marry. Although deciding the case on the basis of the state constitution, Chief Justice Margaret Marshall quoted Lawrence in its second paragraph: "Our obligation is to define the liberty of all, not to mandate our own moral code.

Aside from Massachusetts, other state case law had been quite explicit in limiting the scope of Lawrence and upholding state bans on same-sex marriage regulations. See Standhardt v. Superior Court ex rel County of Maricopa , 77 P. Sadler , N. In the first successful federal court challenge to a state same-sex marriage ban, Judge Vaughn Walker cited Scalia's dissent in his decision in Perry v.

Schwarzenegger that found California's Proposition 8 banning same-sex marriage unconstitutional. It also twice upheld prosecutions under Article when applied as necessary to preserve good order and discipline in the armed forces.

Justice Scalia and others [ who? He wrote the majority, instead, applied "an unheard-of form of rational basis review that will have far-reaching implications beyond this case". Nan D. Hunter has argued that Lawrence used a new method of substantive due process analysis, and that the Court intended to abandon its old method of categorizing due process rights as either "fundamental" or "not fundamental" as too restrictive.

Glucksberg that the role of the Court in all cases, including unenumerated rights cases, is to ensure that the government's action has not been arbitrary. Lower courts have read Lawrence differently on the question of scrutiny. In Lofton v. Secretary of the Department of Children and Family Services the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit upheld a state law barring adoption of children by homosexuals, holding explicitly that Lawrence did not apply strict scrutiny.

John Lawrence died of complications from a heart ailment in , aged From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States Supreme Court case. Daily Op.

Weekly Fed. S This case overturned a previous ruling or rulings. Mason U. Sukie University of Wisconsin Press. Retrieved January 29, The Day. November 2, Laws of Illinois , page , enacted July 28, , effective Jan.

American Civil Liberties Union. March 26, Retrieved December 14, Connecticut ". Retrieved May 2, Baird , U. Hardwick , U. Baird, U. The New York Times. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved Texas Monthly. Texas, S.

Title 5. Offenses Against the Person Chapter Sexual Offenses". Flagrant Conduct: The Story of Lawrence v. New York: W. The New Yorker. Retrieved March 9, Pryor , which upheld Alabama 's prohibition on the sale of sex toys ; Milner v.

Apfel , which asserted that "legislatures are permitted to legislate with regard to morality California Army National Guard , which upheld the federal statute and regulations banning from military service those who engage in homosexual conduct; Owens v. State , Md. The majority in Lawrence , he wrote, "do[es] not bother to distinguish—or indeed, even bother to mention—the paean to stare decisis coauthored by three Members of today's majority in Planned Parenthood v.

There, when stare decisis meant preservation of judicially invented abortion rights, the widespread criticism of Roe was strong reason to reaffirm it. Texas", University of Pennsylvania Law Review , vol. June 26, Harvard Law Review. American Center for Law and Justice. Archived from the original on October 1, The Boston Globe.

Retrieved February 16, October 13, All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Southern Poverty Law Center. ABC News. Archived from the original on December 12, October 21, Archived from the original on October 29, Allen M. Retrieved May 9, Hartford Courant.

February 21, Archived from the original on February 23, Attorney General of Alabama , F. Earle , F. MEL Magazine. Retrieved September 30, Archived from the original on April 7, Archived from the original on May 25, Minnesota Law Review.

San Antonio Indep. Rodriquez , U. Glucksberg , U. Cleburne Living Ctr. Department of the Air Force , No. New York Times. December 23, September 15, Carpenter, Dale Chemerinsky, Erwin Constitutional Law: Principles and Policies 5th ed. New York: Wolters Kluwer.

Nowak, John E. Treatise on Constitutional Law: Substance and Procedure 5th ed. LGBT in Texas. Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage.

Baker v. Perry Gay Student Services v. Hate Crimes Act Lawrence v. Texas Littleton v. Prange Texas Proposition 2 One, Inc. Evans Executive Order Lawrence v. Windsor Executive Order Obergefell v. Hodges Pavan v. Smith Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission. Hardwick Department of Defense Directive District of Columbia. Navajo Nation. Virgin Islands. Adoption Age of consent Conversion therapy bans Hate crimes Housing discrimination Intersex rights Military Transgender Intersex Sexual orientation Employment discrimination by municipality State bans on local anti-discrimination laws Immigration No promo homo laws Public accommodations Religious exemptions Same-sex unions Civil unions Domestic partnerships by municipality Marriage Transgender rights voting.

United States Fourteenth Amendment case law. Citizenship Clause. Slaughter-House Cases Elk v. Wilkins United States v. Wong Kim Ark Perez v. Brownell Afroyim v. Rusk Rogers v. Bellei Saenz v. Roe Due Process Clause. Mugler v. Kansas Allgeyer v. Louisiana Lochner v. New York Coppage v. Kansas Adams v. Tanner Adkins v. Children's Hospital Meyer v. Nebraska Pierce v. Society of Sisters Griswold v. Connecticut Doe v. Bolton Roe v. Wade Bowers v. Hardwick Webster v. Reproductive Health Services Planned Parenthood v.

Casey Lawrence v. Texas Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt United States v. Vuitch Doe v. Wade H. Matheson City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health Webster v. Reproductive Health Services Hodgson v.

Minnesota Planned Parenthood v. Casey Stenberg v. Carhart Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of New England Gonzales v. Carhart Whole Woman's Health v. Monroe v. Pape McNeese v. Board of Educ. This included a revision of the Articles of War of , the new regulations detail statutes governing U. It was changed to make the act of sodomy itself a crime, separate from the offense of assault with intent to commit sodomy. Truman , and became effective on May 31, Article forbids sodomy among all military personnel, defining it as "any person subject to this chapter who engages in unnatural carnal copulation with another person of the same or opposite sex or with an animal is guilty of sodomy.

Penetration, however slight, is sufficient to complete the offence. As for the U. Texas decision applies to Article , severely narrowing the previous ban on sodomy. In both United States v. Stirewalt and United States v. Marcum , the court ruled that the "conduct [consensual sodomy] falls within the liberty interest identified by the Supreme Court," [33] but went on to say that despite the application of Lawrence to the military, Article can still be upheld in cases where there are "factors unique to the military environment" that would place the conduct "outside any protected liberty interest recognized in Lawrence.

Convictions for consensual sodomy have been overturned in military courts under Lawrence in both United States v. Meno [35] and United States v.

Below is a table of sodomy laws and penalties in U. The table indicates which acts or groups were covered under each sodomy law, as pertaining to consenting adults.

It also indicates the year and method of repeal or strikedown. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. No statute banning sodomy. Statute bans bestiality. Statute bans same-sex sodomy. Statute bans sodomy. Gaylaw: Challenging the Apartheid of the Closet. Harvard University Press. Talley, "Gender and male same-sex erotic behavior in British North America in the seventeenth century. Archived from the original on Retrieved Ticer, State Senator D in the.

The Nation. Archived from the original on January 26, Retrieved February 7, Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved April 13, The Huffington Post. Huffington Post. June 25, Archived from the original on July 2, USA Today. October 7, Archived from the original on October 25, Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved April 16, Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces: U.

Webster M. Smith" PDF. Washington Blade. Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved December 21, Picado 80 S. Arkansas State Legislature. Archived PDF from the original on October 22, Retrieved October 15, A person who commits any unnatural and lascivious act with another person commits a misdemeanor of the second degree".

Richard L. Balthazar, Mass. Kelley , No. July 9, Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved August 2, Brashier , NW 2d Mich. December 29, The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 18 May Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles with short description All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Supreme Court Lawrence v. Legislative repeal Oral sex decriminalized Anal sex decriminalized. Legislative repeal , reinstated against same-sex Arkansas Supreme Court Jegley v. Picado [40] Legislative repeal , separate ban on bestiality [41]. Legislative repeal Legislative repeal Legislative repeal State , , struck down original "crimes against nature" statute; sodomy still could be prosecuted under a separate statute against "unnatural and lascivious acts"; [42] law against adultery also retained [43].

Supreme Court of Georgia Powell v. Legislative repeal , laws reinstated U. Legislative repeal for heterosexuals, same-sex sexual activity still illegal - the first state to target LGBT people [44] U.

Legislative repeal for heterosexuals, same-sex sexual activity still illegal [45] Kentucky Supreme Court Kentucky v. Maryland Court of Appeals Schochet v. State heterosexuals [46] Williams v. Glendening oral sex, homosexuals, ruling Williams v. Glendening anal sex, consent decree. Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Commonwealth v.

Balthazar [47] GLAD v. Attorney General [48].

Texas Republicans refuse to remove unconstitutional sodomy law from the books / Queerty

Sodomy laws in the United States , which outlawed a variety of sexual acts , were inherited from colonial laws in the s. During this time, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of sodomy laws in Bowers v. Hardwick in However, in , the Supreme Court reversed the decision with Lawrence v. Colin Talley argues that the sodomy statutes in colonial America in the 17th century were largely unenforced. The reason he argues is that male-male eroticism did not threaten the social structure or challenge the gendered division of labor or the patriarchal ownership of wealth.

It was rejected by the Virginia legislature. In that year, the Model Penal Code MPC — developed by the American Law Institute to promote uniformity among the states as they modernized their statutes — struck a compromise that removed consensual sodomy from its criminal code while making it a crime to solicit for sodomy. Over the years, many of the states that did not repeal their sodomy laws had enacted legislation reducing the penalty. At the time of the Lawrence decision in , the penalty for violating a sodomy law varied very widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction among those states retaining their sodomy laws.

The harshest penalties were in Idaho , where a person convicted of sodomy could earn a life sentence. Michigan followed, with a maximum penalty of 15 years' imprisonment while repeat offenders got life. By , 36 states had repealed their sodomy laws or their courts had overturned them. The continued existence of these rarely enforced laws on the statute books, however, was often cited as justification for discrimination against gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals.

On June 26, , the U. Supreme Court in a 6—3 decision in Lawrence v. Texas struck down the Texas same-sex sodomy law, ruling that this private sexual conduct is protected by the liberty rights implicit in the due process clause of the United States Constitution. This decision invalidated all state sodomy laws insofar as they applied to noncommercial conduct in private between consenting civilians and reversed the Court's ruling in Bowers v.

Hardwick that upheld Georgia 's sodomy law. Before that ruling, 27 states, the District of Columbia , and 4 territories had repealed their sodomy laws by legislative action , 9 states had had them overturned or invalidated by state court action, 4 states still had same-sex sodomy laws, and 10 states, Puerto Rico , and the U. In Puerto Rico repealed its sodomy law, and in Missouri repealed its law against "homosexual conduct".

In State v. On February 20, , the Virginia House of Delegates passed the bill by a vote of 62 to 25 votes. On March 26, , Attorney General of Virginia Ken Cuccinelli filed a petition to have the case reheard en banc , but the Court denied the request on April 10, , with none of its 15 judges supporting the request. Supreme Court to review the Court of Appeals decision, which was rejected on October 7.

On February 7, , the Virginia Senate voted in favor of revising the crimes against nature statue to remove the ban on same-sex sexual relationships. On March 6, , the Virginia House of Delegates voted in favor of the bill. On April 7, the Governor submitted slightly different version of the bill.

It was enacted by the Legislature on April 23, The law took effect upon passage. In April , a proposed Louisiana bill sought to revise the state's crime against nature law, maintaining the existing prohibition against sodomy during the commission of rape and child sex abuse, and against sex with animals, but removing the unconstitutional prohibition against sex between consenting adults.

The bill was defeated on April 15, by a vote of 66 to Utah voted to revise its sodomy laws to include only forcible sodomy and sodomy on children rather than any sexual relations between consenting adults on February 26, As of March , 16 states either have not yet formally repealed their laws against sexual activity among consenting adults or have not revised them to accurately reflect their true scope in the aftermath of Lawrence v.

Often, the sodomy law was drafted to also encompass other forms of sexual conduct such as bestiality, and no attempt has subsequently succeeded in separating them. Thirteen states' statutes purport to ban all forms of sodomy, some including oral intercourse, regardless of the participants' genders: Alabama , Florida , Georgia , Idaho , Louisiana , Maryland , Massachusetts , Michigan , Minnesota , Mississippi , North Carolina , Oklahoma and South Carolina.

Three states specifically target their statutes at same-sex relations only: Kansas , [21] [22] Kentucky , and Texas. Sodomy laws in the United States were largely a matter of state rather than federal jurisdiction, except for laws governing the District of Columbia and the U. Armed Forces. In , Congress enacted the District of Columbia Organic Act of that continued all criminal laws of Maryland and Virginia in the now formally structured District, with those of Maryland applying to that portion of the District ceded from Maryland, and those of Virginia applying to that portion ceded from Virginia.

The law went into effect on February 27, In , Congress established penalties in the District of Columbia for a number of crimes, but not for sodomy. It specified that "every other felony, misdemeanor, or offence not provided for by this act, may and shall be punished as heretofore[.

It went into effect in March 2, In , Congress passed a law for the District of Columbia that states that "for the preservation of the public peace and the protection of property within the District of Columbia. The law went into effect on July 29, In , Congress deleted the word "notoriously" from the provision concerning a lewd or lascivious course of life, thereby allowing prosecution of those without notoriety.

The law went into effect on July 8, The law went into effect on March 3, In , Congress passed a law for the District of Columbia that made it a crime for "any person to invite, entice, persuade, or to address for the purpose of inviting, enticing, or persuading any person or persons In , Congress enacted a new solicitation law for the District of Columbia that labeled a "vagrant" any person who "engages in or commits acts of fornication or perversion for hire.

Also included with this sodomy law was a psychopathic offender law and a law "to provide for the treatment of sexual psychopaths in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes. The law went into effect on June 29, In , after the District of Columbia regained home rule from Congress, it enacted a law that repealed the sodomy law, as well as other consensual acts, and made the sexual assault laws gender-neutral.

However, the U. House exercised the power that it retained to veto laws passed by the District of Columbia Council. On October 1, , the House voted to disallow the new law. Supreme Court in the case of Immigration and Naturalization Service v.

Chadha , but the law was repealed by an act of Congress in a revision to the home-rule law required by the Supreme Court decision. In , the District of Columbia passed a law repealing the sodomy law, but this time Congress did not interfere and allowed the law to go into effect.

Although the U. On March 1, , the Articles of War of were implemented. This included a revision of the Articles of War of , the new regulations detail statutes governing U. It was changed to make the act of sodomy itself a crime, separate from the offense of assault with intent to commit sodomy.

Truman , and became effective on May 31, Article forbids sodomy among all military personnel, defining it as "any person subject to this chapter who engages in unnatural carnal copulation with another person of the same or opposite sex or with an animal is guilty of sodomy. Penetration, however slight, is sufficient to complete the offence. As for the U. Texas decision applies to Article , severely narrowing the previous ban on sodomy. In both United States v. Stirewalt and United States v.

Marcum , the court ruled that the "conduct [consensual sodomy] falls within the liberty interest identified by the Supreme Court," [33] but went on to say that despite the application of Lawrence to the military, Article can still be upheld in cases where there are "factors unique to the military environment" that would place the conduct "outside any protected liberty interest recognized in Lawrence. Convictions for consensual sodomy have been overturned in military courts under Lawrence in both United States v.

Meno [35] and United States v. Below is a table of sodomy laws and penalties in U. The table indicates which acts or groups were covered under each sodomy law, as pertaining to consenting adults. It also indicates the year and method of repeal or strikedown. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. No statute banning sodomy.

Statute bans bestiality. Statute bans same-sex sodomy. Statute bans sodomy. Gaylaw: Challenging the Apartheid of the Closet. Harvard University Press. Talley, "Gender and male same-sex erotic behavior in British North America in the seventeenth century. Archived from the original on Retrieved Ticer, State Senator D in the. The Nation. Archived from the original on January 26, Retrieved February 7, Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved April 13, The Huffington Post.

Huffington Post. June 25, Archived from the original on July 2, USA Today. October 7,

Law sodomy texas

Law sodomy texas

Law sodomy texas