Benita Arren was the third person to join an innovative study of transgender individuals in Belgium. Credit: Bea Uhart. Benita Arren wishes that the human body came with instructions. About a decade ago, Arren was struggling with inner conflict. Then in her forties, married with two children and busy with a job in Antwerp, Belgium, she found them resurfacing.
London: Onlywomen. Families with a young child that identifies as Transgender female form different gender and chooses to alter their gender role through dress or behaviors may respect their child's decision, and sometimes, may decide to relocate the child to another area in order to afford the young person the best opportunity to live in their desired gender role among a novel set of peers and community. Travestis generally undergo hormonal treatment, use female gender expression including Trnsgender names and pronouns from the masculine ones they were given when assigned a sex, and might use breast implants, but they are not offered or do Relationship dating flirting articles desire sex-reassignment surgery. And there is a sense in which this p. Transgender history. Intersex before and after Gender. Retrieved 25 April Rush, catering especially to crossdressers and transgenders, is a cafe owned by a year-old man who goes by the female femle Transgender female form Cho-rong. Journal of Sexual Medicine.
Video take off strip bottle. Complex impacts
Transgender people, particularly transgender women of color, face shockingly high rates of murder, homelessness, and incarceration. However, she elaborates on it by saying that being a trans woman often has a negative connotation. Even if we take Bugis Street as a starting point, we should remember that cross-dressing did not emerge suddenly out of nowhere. Generally the term drag queen covers men doing female drag, drag king covers women doing male drag, Transgender female form faux queen covers women doing female drag. Sometimes families are resistant Tgansgender first but eventually come around. The Williams Institute. The CDC refers to the word " Transgender female form " as "an umbrella term for persons whose gender identity or expression masculinefeminineother is different from their sex malefemale at birth". LGBT Health. The term transvestite and the associated Transgender female form term transvestism Translating teenage sayings conceptually different from the term transvestic Transgenseras transvestic fetishist Tansgender to those who intermittently use clothing of the opposite gender for fetishistic purposes. Gender identity is a person's internal, personal sense of being a man or a woman femsle boy or girl. Frequently Asked Questions about Transgender People. I'm not gay. Can they change it later, or will they have to awkwardly talk to someone on Transgender female form phone to make that change? Rights and legal issues. On June 30,the United States Department of Defense removed the ban that prohibited transgender people from openly serving rorm the Transgender female form military.
A trans woman sometimes trans-woman or transwoman is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
- There are indications that this not only risks losing engagement but also leads to false conclusions based on bad data.
- A trans woman sometimes trans-woman or transwoman is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
- Transgender people come from every region of the United States and around the world, from every racial and ethnic background, and from every faith community.
Transgender issues manifest at different times in life in different individuals. However, many of these children experience rejection as a result of their differences and quickly attempt to repress them. Therefore, people who see these children regularly may be unaware that they are unhappy as members of their assigned gender. In many parts of the world, being transgender  is not widely accepted by the public and as for transgender youth, they not only face discrimination but also can encounter family exclusion.
To "come out", according to Merriam-Webster,  means to openly declare something about oneself previously kept hidden or to openly declare one's homosexuality. For the LGBT community, to "come out" means to acknowledge one's sexual identity or gender identity and make it known to the public of their identity.
At the beginning, they may first be aware of the discordance of their gender identities and biological representation. This process can occur as early as six years old, with a mean age of It takes on average three years then they would start getting labels from others saying that they are transgender individuals. Around a year later, they would recognize themselves as transgender individuals and start telling others about it. They would also start representing themselves according to their gender identities.
Family acceptance holds a significant impact on the lives of transgender youth. In some cases, parents will react negatively to such news and reject the child's person by disowning the child or taking actions such as kicking the youth out of the home. Because transgender youth depend on their parents for support and acceptance, family exclusion can result in them becoming emotionally vulnerable and regretting their decision to come out.
Many parents join organizations such as PFLAG, so they can meet other parents and learn how to advocate for their children. Additionally, reactions of parents to transgender children can change over time. For example, parents who initially reacted with negativity and hostility may eventually come around to support their transgender children.
Studies have indicated a number of ways that parents or guardians of transgender youth can show support and acceptance for their child with one of them being the opportunity for the child to speak about their gender identity. Transgender youth have found greater success and emotional stability when parents took on a supportive role rather than a controlling and dismissive stance. Troubleshooting problems during the transition as they arise, rather than pushing views on the child and dictating their process has allowed for healthier transitions.
Parents access to information is critical in aiding and advocating for transgender youth. Access to information supports parents in providing youth with resources regarding their gender identity such as medical care, counseling, educational literature, and local youth groups that can provide access to others in the transgender community.
Family acceptance among transgender youth predicts an increase in greater self-esteem, social support, and general health status. It also protects against depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation and behaviors.
Family behaviors can increase or decrease health risks of transgender youth. On the positive end, behaviors such as supporting the youth's gender identity by talking about it and working to support their choice even though the parent might be uncomfortable make a significant impact on boosting the youths confidence, which works to combat health risks associated with rejection.
Gender dysphoria is a strong, persistent discomfort and distress with one's gender, anatomy, birth sex, and even societal attitudes toward their gender variance.
Body esteem of several transgender youth was measured in an interview in three categories personal satisfaction of appearance, personal satisfaction of weight, and perceived satisfaction of others of one's body appearance. Gender Dysphoria, however, is caused by this disconnect. Not all transgender people have gender dysphoria, but they do in fact require a disconnect.
Transgender youth are at an increased risk for physical , verbal , and sexual abuse. This evidence is not clear as to the relationship between abuse and sexual identity in regards to which is the cause and which is the effect. Regardless, it does show a relationship between childhood abuse and gender identity. Have marks on my body. I have things that I remember happened to me. Transgender youth who face physical abuse may be forced to leave their homes, or choose to leave, which can be a particularly traumatic experience.
The lack of housing was found to often lead to financial difficulties for such youth. Lack of support at home and constant harassment at school may lead to academic difficulties for the youth as well, who face a much higher drop out level compared to their cisgender counterparts. One practice that has resulted from transgender youth's inability to attain shelter that cares for their needs is to turn to survival sex for their money and shelter needs.
Survival sex is the act of engaging in sexual activity with another individual or the act of selling sex in order to meet one's basic survival needs. While there is an awareness of the possible dangers associated with survival sex, it is often reported that a sense of pride in being able to support oneself accompanies the activity or the positivity of being able to eat and have somewhere to rest that night.
In the past, transgender youth faced many hardships in obtaining medical treatment for gender dysphoria. This lack of access was often due to doctors refusing to treat youth or youth fearing negative reactions from health care providers. Some of the medical professionals who are permitted to prescribe hormones include medical providers, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants.
This can be potentially dangerous, and can result in a multitude of health problems for the youth, including improper pubertal growth and HIV due to contaminated needles. Sexually transmitted infections are a large health problem for transgender teens as well, as sexual partners often do not perceive these youth as health risks, especially since male-to-female youth cannot become pregnant.
This trend of unprotected sex among the transgender population puts them at increased risk and has led to higher numbers of STIs among the group  However, the latest revision of the Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People has addressed the needs of transgender children.
When an individual is transitioning from female to male FTM or male to female MTF , there are several avenues  that are available to them pendant upon their financial capabilities, insurance's agreement to cover costs, and personal desire to utilize these options. While these options do exist, many of them are labeled off limits to minors individuals under the age of One of the options that does exist for minors is the use of puberty blockers, which in were officially stated as not damaging to bone health at the Endocrine Society's 95 Annual Meeting in San Francisco.
Puberty blockers are believed to put the succession of puberty on pause and can reverse any changes that had been made. Typically puberty blockers, which are reversible are first administered between the ages of 12—14 years of age, this is the age block because 16 years of age is believed to be too late. Norman Spack , an endocrinologist who primarily has worked with intersex patients, has been a forerunner in helping youth navigate the transition process and educate others.
His work is guided by his desire to see the suicide rates amongst untreated transgender individuals go down and to keep youth from undergoing psychological trauma that can accompany puberty when they do not identify. Spack is inspired by the research done in Dutch nations in their use of puberty blockers and affirms this choice, this affirmation stems from the fact that early administration of cross sex hormones causes stunts in growth, issues of infertility, and other health issues.
When this procedure of puberty blockers and cross sex hormones are followed, transitional surgery is then granted upon turning 18 years old. For those who are above age 18 and do not require the consent of an adult, there is a myriad of options  available if they wish to transition. For those wishing to transition from male to female, options consist of facial feminisation surgery, vaginoplasty, breast augmentation surgery, and cross-sex hormones.
For those wishing to transition from female to male, options consist of penile construction surgery, breast reduction surgery, and cross- sex hormones. In the United States to change an individual's existing gender marker and name, visits must be made to change the driver's license , social security card , banking documents, passport , the list trails on and extensive documentation must be presented in order to change each individual item.
School settings can be some of the toughest for transgender youth. Several problems may be faced at schools, including verbal and physical harassment and assault, sexual harassment , social exclusion and isolation, and other interpersonal problems with peers.
A majority of these students also reported physical harassment at school, with nearly half reporting that they had been punched, kicked, or injured with a weapon.
They frequently reported fear an anxiety about using these facilities at school because of experiences of harassment by both peers and adults when using them. Negative comments about gender presentation may be frequently overheard in these places, and surveyed students have reported being "pushed around," "getting the crap beat out of them," and "getting their asses kicked" by peers.
Unfortunately, school administrations often do not take reports of victimisation of transgender students seriously. Only a third of transgender students who reported victimization to school staff members feel that their situation was taken care of adequately and effectively. The other two thirds often run into situations where the school staff members blame the victimized students. One student, when reporting bullying, said that they were told "that I need to stop flaunting my sexuality".
These things serve no educational purpose and only isolate transgender students further. High drop out rates and low grade point averages seem to plague the transgender population. The severity and frequency of bullying and harassment are directly correlated to these things. Anti-transgender bullying in schools has also been found to directly correlate with other negative outcomes, such as homelessness, unemployment, incarceration, and drug use.
Though several studies that estimate life-threatening behavior for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth have been done, few have been done regarding transgender youth, and thus comparable estimates do not exist.
The few studies that have been done, however, have all concluded that transgender youth are at increased risk even over their gay, lesbian, and bisexual counterparts. A study of transgender youth found that, of the youth interviewed, about half had seriously contemplated ending their own lives. Of those who had thought about suicide , about half had actually made an attempt. Suicide rates were reported even higher for those who were unemployed, experienced harassment and physical or sexual abuse, or low household income.
Youth are generally predisposed to life-threatening behaviors due to a number of conditions, such as self-hatred, victimisation via bullying , substance abuse , etc.
In comparing those transgender youth who had and had not attempted suicide, there were significant differences in family relations, peer relations, and school performance  Awareness of the suicide rates of LGBT youth spiked post, as a result of significant publicity being given to the recent suicides of Leelah Alcorn , Skylar Lee, and Ash Haffner only being a few.
Critics such as Andrew Gilligan have claimed that figures for youth transgender suicide are grossly exaggerated by transgender groups. Individuals involved in the juvenile justice system have reported that transgender youth have an exceptionally difficult experience. That is damaging to their mental health, and an experience that other youth are not subjected to. Juvenile justice professionals are bound to the rules of ethics to ensure all youth are treated fairly. However, many transgender youth felt as if they were not adequately represented or respected in court.
Prosecutors are required to ensure that all individuals are treated fairly and are not discriminated against. The judge agreed to the sentence, even though they did not seem suicidal, dangerous, or appear to be a flight risk. Some report to have had a defense attorney who went directly against their client's wishes due to his or her own personal beliefs.
According to "A Quick Guide" , after court sentencing, youth are placed in detention centers where they are processed and assigned their placements within the facility. During intake, the goal is to address safety concerns of the youth, identify those who are vulnerable, and then house juveniles based upon their birth gender. Medical experts state that this process puts the transgender youth in distress and undermines their emotional stability.
One pediatrician believes that male-to-female girls should be housed in female units because they are safer there. However, female-to-male boys are harder to place because of the high level of violence in the boy's facilities, and the high chance of sexual assault. Jamal, a female-to-male boy, stated that he knew that he would not be safe with the other boys because he knows how violent males are despite how he may appear on the outside he not genetically male.
As a result, transgender youth are frequently placed in solitarily confinement. One transgender youth in New York was placed in isolation for three weeks, despite her request to be placed in general population.
Additionally, the safety of detention facilities is a primary issue as reported from LGBT youth in detention centers and individuals who work in the juvenile justice system. Ultimately, there needs to be a better understanding of transgender youth, realizing that they are not predatory, and increasing protections for their safety.
In recent years, some transgender children have received counseling and, in some cases, medical treatment for their condition, as well as the ability to change their gender identity.
The light blue is the traditional color for baby boys, pink is for girls, and the white in the middle is for "those who are transitioning, those who feel they have a neutral gender or no gender", and those who are intersex. When I was 19, I decided to become a man, but the problem is that I don't have enough money to pursue what I want to be, inside and out. American Psychological Association. Talk to people who are supportive. People can realize that they're transgender at any age. They may leave the form, the site, or the service. Please expand the section to include this information.
Transgender female form. UX Collective
A transgender man lives as a man today, but was thought to be female when he was born. Some transgender people identify as neither male nor female, or as a combination of male and female. There are a variety of terms that people who aren't entirely male or entirely female use to describe their gender identity, like non-binary or genderqueer.
Everyone—transgender or not—has a gender identity. Being transgender means different things to different people. Like a lot of other aspects of who people are, like race or religion, there's no one way to be transgender, and no one way for transgender people to look or feel about themselves.
The best way to understand what being transgender is like is to talk with transgender people and listen to their stories. People can realize that they're transgender at any age. Some people can trace their awareness back to their earlier memories — they just knew. Some people may spend years feeling like they don't fit in without really understanding why, or may try to avoid thinking or talking about their gender out of fear, shame, or confusion.
For many transgender people, recognizing who they are and deciding to start gender transition can take a lot of reflection. Transgender people risk social stigma, discrimination, and harassment when they tell other people who they really are.
Parents, friends, coworkers, classmates, and neighbors may be accepting—but they also might not be, and many transgender people fear that they will not be accepted by their loved ones and others in their life. It can be difficult for people who are not transgender to imagine what being transgender feels like. Gender identity and sexual orientation are two different things. Gender identity refers to your internal knowledge of your own gender—for example, your knowledge that you're a man, a woman, or another gender.
Like non-transgender people, transgender people can have any sexual orientation. For example, a transgender man someone who lives as a man today may be primarily attracted to other men and identify as a gay man , may be primarily attracted to women and identify as a straight man , or have any other sexual orientation.
People sometimes confuse being transgender and being intersex. Being transgender, meanwhile, has to do with your internal knowledge of your gender identity.
A transgender person is usually born with a body and genes that match a typical male or female, but they know their gender identity to be different. Every year, an estimated one in 2, babies are born with a set of characteristics that can't easily be classified as "male" or "female. There are many different types of intersex conditions. For example, some people are born with XY chromosomes but have female genitals and secondary sex characteristics.
Others might have XX chromosomes but no uterus, or might have external anatomy that doesn't appear clearly male or female. For example, many intersex people with XY typically male chromosomes but typically female anatomy are declared female at birth, are raised as girls, and identify as girls; in fact, many of these girls and their families never even become aware that their chromosomes are different than expected until much later in life.
What is the difference between being transgender and being gender non-conforming? Being gender non-conforming means not conforming to gender stereotypes.
Gender non-conforming people may or may not be transgender. For example, some women who were raised and identify as women present themselves in ways that might be considered masculine, like by having short hair or wearing stereotypically masculine clothes.
Similarly, transgender people may be gender non-conforming, or they might conform to gender stereotypes for the gender they live and identify as. Some people don't identify with any gender.
Some people's gender fluctuates over time. People whose gender is not male or female may use many different terms to describe themselves. One term that some people use is non-binary , which is used because the gender binary refers to the two categories of male and female. Another term that people use is genderqueer. If you're not sure what term someone uses to describe their gender, you should ask them politely. It's important to remember that if someone is transgender, it does not necessarily mean that they have a "third gender.
Telling someone that a core part of who they are is wrong or delusional and forcing them to change it is dangerous, sometimes leading to lasting depression, substance abuse, self-hatred and even suicide. However, many transgender people find it helpful to get counseling to help them decide when to tell the world they are transgender and deal with the repercussions of stigma and discrimination that comes afterward. Transitioning is the time period during which a person begins to live according to their gender identity, rather than the gender they were thought to be at birth.
While not all transgender people transition, a great many do at some point in their lives. Gender transition looks different for every person. And some people undergo hormone therapy or other medical procedures to change their physical characteristics and make their body better reflect the gender they know themselves to be. Transitioning can help many transgender people lead healthy, fulfilling lives. All transgender people are entitled to the same dignity and respect, regardless of which legal or medical steps they have taken.
What are some of the official records transgender people may change when they're transitioning? Some transgender people make or want to make legal changes as part of their transition, like by changing their name or updating the gender marker on their identity documents. Not all transgender people need or want to change their identity documents, but for many, it's a critical step in their transition.
For many transgender people, not having identity documents like driver's licenses or passports that match their gender means that they might not be able to do things that require an ID, like getting a job, enrolling in school, opening a bank account, or traveling. Some transgender people who use an ID that doesn't match their gender or their presentation face harassment, humiliation, and even violence.
Transgender people may need to change a number of documents in order to live according to their gender identity, such as their:. It's important to know that not all transgender people be able to make the changes they need to their IDs and other official documents.
Trans women may be heterosexual , bisexual , homosexual , asexual , or identify with other terms such as queer. The term transgender woman is not always interchangeable with transsexual woman , although the terms are often used interchangeably. Transgender is an umbrella term that includes different types of gender variant people including transsexual people.
Trans women face significant discrimination in many areas of life transmisogyny , a subset of transphobia , including in employment and access to housing, and face physical and sexual violence and hate crimes, including from partners; in the United States, discrimination is particularly severe towards trans women who are members of a racial minority , who often face the intersection of transphobia and racism. Both transsexual and transgender women may experience gender dysphoria , distress brought upon by the discrepancy between their gender identity and the sex that was assigned to them at birth and the associated gender role or primary and secondary sex characteristics.
Both transsexual and transgender women may transition. A major component of medical transition for trans women is estrogen hormone replacement therapy , which causes the development of female secondary sex characteristics breasts , redistribution of body fat, lower waist—hip ratio , etc.
The term trans woman originates from the use of the Latin prefix trans- meaning "across, beyond, through, on the other side of,  to go beyond" and woman. However, she elaborates on it by saying that being a trans woman often has a negative connotation.
Heidi M. Levitt provides a simpler description of trans woman. She defines trans woman as "the sex of those who transition from one sex to the other. The CDC refers to the word " transgender " as "an umbrella term for persons whose gender identity or expression masculine , feminine , other is different from their sex male , female at birth".
In contrast, Levitt explains that "transsexual people have a sexual identity that does not match their physical sex" and that some desire sex-reassignment surgery. In addition, the Oxford English Dictionary refers to transsexual as "having physical characteristics of one sex and psychological characteristics of the other" and "one whose sex has been changed by surgery.
In addition, they may want or undergo surgery to change their physical appearance. Thus trans women fall under the umbrella of being transgender because their gender was assigned male at birth but they identify as a woman.
Some trans women who feel that their gender transition is complete prefer to be called simply women, considering trans woman or male-to-female transsexual to be terms that should only be used for people who are not fully transitioned. Likewise, many may not want to be seen as a "trans woman," often owing to the societal otherization of trans individuals.
Among those who do refer to themselves as trans women, many see it as an important and appropriate distinction to include a space in the term, as in trans woman , thus using trans as merely an adjective describing a particular type of woman; this is in contrast to the usage of transwoman as one word, implying a " third gender ". Trans women may identify as heterosexual , bisexual , homosexual , asexual , or none of the above.
Trans women face a form of violence known as trans bashing. The Washington Blade reported that Global Rights , an international NGO, tracked the mistreatment of trans women in Brazil, including at the hands of the police. See Trans panic defense. In a trope took hold in the United States media to the effect that the life expectancy of a trans woman of color is only 35 years, a number both "terrifying and ludicrous".
In , 23 transgender people suffered fatal attacks in the United States. Trans women, like all gender variant people, face a vast amount of discrimination and transphobia. A survey of roughly trans women living in the United States, as summarized in the report "Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey", found that trans women reported that:  [ specify ].
Discrimination is particularly severe towards non-white trans women, who experience the intersection of racism and transphobia. In her book Whipping Girl , trans woman Julia Serano refers to the unique discrimination trans women experience as " transmisogyny ". Discrimination against trans women has occurred at the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival after the Festival set out a rule that it would only be a space for cisgender females. This led to protests by trans women and their allies, and a boycott of the Festival by Equality Michigan in The "womyn-born-womyn" intention first came to attention in after a transsexual festival-goer, Nancy Burkholder, was asked to leave the festival when several women recognized her as a trans woman and expressed discomfort with her presence in the space.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Woman assigned male at birth. Gender identities. Health care and medicine. Rights issues. Society and culture. Theory and concepts. By country. See also. See also: Transsexual. Main article: Sexual orientation. See also: List of unlawfully killed transgender people. This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Learn how and when to remove these template messages. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section is missing information about discrimination faced by trans women outside of the United States.
Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. November Further information: Transgender inequality , Transphobia , Transgender rights , and Transmisogyny.
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Transgender youth - Wikipedia
This essay discusses the complex relations between feminist theory and trans and intersex theory and politics. This chapter shows how this model has unfortunately resulted in political impasse, particularly in articulating a feminism that sees trans and intersex oppression as intersecting with sexist oppression.
As a consequence, the beyond-the-binary model has foreclosed a genuinely intersectional trans feminism and intersex feminism, leaving the former mired in a politically impoverished individualism. Transsexual was originally used in a medical context to refer to individuals with gender identities incongruent with the sex assigned at birth who sought medical technologies to alter their bodies.
The term has recently been used to flag opposition to the politics of transgender. The expressions hermaphrodite and intersex have a long history, and both have been used in medical and activist ways Chase b.
Some transsexual individuals have claimed transsexuality as a kind of intersex condition. As far we as we know, such claims have not been substantiated. Under the influence of John Money, a model for the treatment of intersex individuals emerged in the mids, and moved quickly into dominance Karkazis This required parental consistency in the gender of rearing and a lack of confusion in the child created by knowledge of their intersex past.
In practice, this led to clinicians deceiving patients about their intersex conditions Dreger and Herndon, , ; Reis , — Central to this model was the view that medical interventions on the body were necessary to facilitate the p.
This intervention involved genital surgery to approximate the genitalia of the assigned gender , gonadal removal if the gonads disagreed with the assigned gender , and subsequent hormone therapy when the patient reached the age of puberty In , the same year Harry Benjamin published the landmark The Transsexual Phenomenon , the Johns Hopkins Hospital of Johns Hopkins University became the first to offer a program for sex-reassignment surgery with Money as the lead , ushering in an era of large-university gender-identity clinics that would last to the end of the seventies Meyerowitz , Patients were selected partly based on their ability to pass as nontranssexual , willingness to fade into the background of everyday life, and compliance with a heteronormative lifestyle Meyerowitz , The core idea, championed by Harry Benjamin, was that while the gender identity of transsexuals was pathological, it was impervious to alteration.
If the mind cannot be changed, according to this logic, the body must be changed to alleviate the suffering of the patient Benjamin , Intersex activism has also had some success, though it has diverged significantly from its earlier ties with transgender activism. From the beginning, there were some trans thinkers who worried that trans theory and politics were too closely wedded to queer theory and politics Namaste ; Prosser ; Rubin Bornstein also draws significantly on the groundbreaking feminist ethnomethodological work of Suzanne Kessler and Wendy McKenna , 7 , who had undermined the sex-gender distinction long before Butler arrived on the scene.
That hostility had a long history. Underlying this hostility is the premise that trans women are actually men. Two, possibly inconsistent, claims, often blurred together, motivate that position. The first is the essentialist view that chromosomes determine sex Raymond , And the latter view is crucial to lesbian feminism and the woman-identified woman as a political project of self-definition Radicalesbians In this view, women have long had their self-identities colonized by men.
The solution is to become woman-identified, to begin to see oneself through the loving eyes of another woman. Given that Raymond allows for the possibility of self-definition, the question arises of why it is not possible for trans women to self-define as women. Just as it would be questionable for a white person to claim to be black as a way of resisting racism, so it is questionable for a man to define himself as a woman to adopt a pro-feminist stance Raymond , An appeal to woman-identification could not possibly have the same meaning of resistance for a man because he has not experienced sexist oppression in the first place—the oppression from which the necessity for meaningful resistance arises.
I will call this the radical feminist argument. Unfortunately the argument, already buried in an ocean of hostile representations of trans women, was subsequently de-emphasized in what appears to have been a deeper plunge into essentialism. In her introduction to the edition of The Transsexual Empire, Raymond pointed to the importance of history—but this time to the history of bodily events as determined by XX chromosomes —menstruation, childbirth, p.
While Raymond denied any essentialism, one wonders what she would say about individuals who did not experience such a history but were nonetheless raised as girls and subjected to sexist oppression.
Germaine Greer adopted similar logic in her critique of male-to-female transsexuals in The Whole Woman The feminists who critiqued the medical protocols for the treatment of people with intersex conditions, allied themselves with intersex activism and contributed to the theoretical context of its development. Chase reached out to Kessler in , leading to a correspondence between the two.
Chase also found a devoted ally in Alice Dreger a few years later Karkazis To be sure, there is a perverse sense in which the emerging transgender politics of the nineties endorsed many of the points that Raymond herself had made.
There was agreement that the medical model of transsexuality serves to perpetuate sexist norms Raymond , 92; Stone , , and that transsexuality is not a pathological condition but arises, rather, as a consequence of an oppressive gender system Raymond , ; Bornstein , There was even agreement that bodily dysphoria, which motivates surgical intervention, would disappear in a culture that had no gender oppression Raymond , ; Bornstein , But Raymond represented the hostile face of feminism in opposition to which trans studies and politics arose.
Her transphobia had to be named and analyzed. This process generated efforts to articulate a notion of trans oppression and resistance that did not reduce to sexist oppression.
When Raymond , represents postoperative trans people as synthetically hermaphroditic, she construes trans women as hybrids who take up feminine stereotypes while retaining aspects of masculine sex role and privilege She contrasts such integration the putting together of parts with integrity, represented as the transcendence of sex roles altogether p. But the transsexual currently occupies a position which is nowhere, which is outside the binary oppositions of gendered discourse.
For a transsexual, as a transsexual, to generate a true, effective and representational counter-discourse is to speak from outside the boundaries of gender, beyond the constructed oppositional nodes which have been predefined as the only positions from which discourse is possible.
Stone , For Stone, this means that transsexuals ought not construct plausible histories of their past. Instead, they ought to own their transsexual pasts and integrate that into their current self-identities. Years earlier, when I went through my gender change from male to female, I glided through life under the commonly accepted assumption: I was finally a real woman!
Bornstein 3. Although there are different variants of the beyond-the-binary model, a common denominator is a characterization of sharp splits between two oppositional gender extremes as the source of oppression. The insistence on two clearly distinguished sexes has calamitous personal consequences for the many individuals who arrive in the world with sexual anatomy that fails to be easily distinguished into male or female.
Chase a , This model has left many unhappy as it invalidates trans people who identify within the binary. And there is a sense in which this p. They refuse the confessional strategy of coming out. Consider the following well-known passage from Raymond:.
Rape, although it is usually done by force, can also be accomplished by deception. Raymond , This is clearly an extreme transphobic claim, but one that requires additional theorization.
The claim that postoperative male-to-female transsexuals are, from their sheer existence, inherently rapists was not fully addressed in p.
The frequently deployed representation of trans women as deceptive has also escaped scrutiny , , , By understanding the nature of this transphobia, and how trans people contest it, it is possible to answer the radical feminist argument. Not only does her trans feminism concern both trans-specific oppression and sexist oppression and the ways in which these oppressions can be integrally linked, Koyama also argued that any form of trans feminism which fails to centralize other forms of oppression such as racism and classism through an intersectional lens does so at its own peril.
But how is the intersection between sexist and trans oppression to be understood? The beyond-the-binary model cannot sustain such an intersection. But in developing a politics based on rejecting gendered binaries, this model precludes the possibility of an intersectional trans or intersex feminism.
It is possible to advance a critique similar to that raised by Paula Moya , by suggesting that there is a distinction p. Indeed, the presumption that an anti-identity stance is a good political strategy runs afoul of intersectional concerns. As Cathy Cohen notes,. Class or material privilege is a cornerstone of much of queer politics and theory as they exist today. Cohen , This idea seems likewise applicable to trans theory and politics. Trans as resistant identity raises interesting conundrums, however.
But in this instance, she is not oppressed as a woman, because she is not even recognized as one. Alternately, a trans woman may be recognized as a woman, which also constitutes a form of trans oppression insofar as her liminal status has been erased precisely by thrusting her into one of two hegemonic categories.
In this case, she is oppressed first through the erasure of her liminal status, and second through standard forms of sexism once she is regarded as woman. Genders beyond the binary of male and female are neither fictive nor futural but are embodied and lived. Thus, rather than p. Intersex activists and theorists have raised related concerns about feminist theorizing and teaching on intersex issues see Rosario Similar complaints have made in trans studies.
In may be, however, that trans and intersex identities e. In aiming for a genuinely intersectional trans feminism, then, perhaps a transformative model might be preferable. By theorizing trans in ways that do not rely on the beyond-the-binary model, it is possible to move beyond nonbinary subjectivities as flattened theories and tired tropes to see real flesh and blood people who live outside the binary.
To provide a basis for trans feminism, the first order of business is to answer the radical feminist argument. Such a response would begin by noting that many trans women do experience sexist oppression after transitioning, and many trans women transition quite early.
The wrong-body model is premised on the assumption that gender identity is not only inalterable but also innate Bettcher a. There are two possible variations. Transfeminism views any method of assigned sex as socially and politically constructed, and advocates a social arrangement in which one is free to assign her or his own sex or non-sex, for that matter.
Koyama is quite right to condemn the nonconsensual surgical alteration of intersex infants and sex reassignment in medical contexts. But there are problems with the alternative construction of sex as freely chosen, a form of voluntarism that is incompatible with understandings of the power of regulative gender and sexual norms and which is incapable of providing an adequate conception of gender oppression.
To see this, consider a variant of the beyond-the-binary model that we have not yet discussed. Liberation, in this view, requires that all forms of gender expression be recognized as acceptable. Marilyn Frye shows why norms forbidding men from being emotionally vulnerable do not by themselves constitute the oppression of men.
To provide a compelling account of trans and intersex oppression, it is not enough to claim there are people who are unhappy with their sex assignment at birth.
Even men may have some grounds for complaint with the way sex is socially constituted.