However, many women wean in the first days and weeks, often earlier than they had hoped. United Hospital 5. I attended a number of Hmong efeding and participated in Hmong activities. London: Croom Helm. So if I gave them bottle milk, then there was no one to look after them and because I could not go to Hmong breast feeding, I let them stay on my breasts. Lancet,25— Hmong women also believed that breastmilk is best for a newborn infant since it makes the baby healthy. Hull and Simpson offer an explanation for this change that has occurred with some Hmong Hmong breast feeding in Australia: In contexts where there are no readily available alternatives to breastmilk and where family and peer support can be marshalled to counteract insecurity and provide support and advice, breastfeeding can persist and thrive.
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We invited Hmong community members to review our listening session notes, create breastfeeding messages from Hmong breast feeding, and develop Hmong brreast projects to implement between April and June Another lesson was recognizing my own biases towards my community. I felt energized and not groggy or heavy like I usually do when I eat whatever I want. If you use our Hmong breast feeding, we'd love to see what you're doing with them. Sign Up Activate Account. Pregnancy and Childbirth. Develop a page Hmong breastfeeding and birth outcomes in Minnesota fact sheet by Bbreast Birth outcomes and breastfeeding in Minnesota Hmong women. Menu Search. After each session, my Geisha imperial costa del sol and I debriefed and evaluated the responses. Also, my iron levels increased and my doctor told me at my four-week check up that I was no longer considered anemic. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. However, the Minnesota Department of Health MDH WIC program reported Hmong Minnesotans are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and have shorter breastfeeding periods compared to other races and Hmong breast feeding in Minnesota 1. Many of the postpartum herbs help increase energy, appetite, and iron levels.
Mothers who breastfeed have less risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.
- The purpose of the Hmong postpartum diet is to help cleanse and heal the body after labor.
- However, the Minnesota Department of Health MDH WIC program reported Hmong Minnesotans are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and have shorter breastfeeding periods compared to other races and ethnicities in Minnesota 1.
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Traditionally, Hmong women breastfeed their newborn infants. However, since their settlement in a new country, some women have changed to bottlefeeding. Hmong women either choose breast- or bottlefeeding based on what they think is best for their babies; their clear intention is to have children who will be healthy and thrive.
In this article, I discuss infant feeding beliefs and practices in one eth- nic community in Australia: the Hmong. In particular I focus on changed patterns of infant feeding practices that have occurred since their settlement in Australia. I thank Lyn Watson, who read the paper and made comments during its preparation. E-mail: pranee latrobe. For the mother, breastfeeding soon after birth reduces the risk of postpartum haemorrhage Gonzalez, In addition, it provides a nat- ural form of birth spacing Brown, ; Gray et al.
Only 7. This is particularly so for the women who have settled in Australia. The United States accepted the majority as immigrants. In Australia, there are far fewer Hmong, approximately 1, Stone, In Victoria, the Hmong live in close-knit groups, mainly in high-rise public housing in an inner suburb and in another outer suburb in the state capital, Melbourne.
In general the Hmong are much poorer than other Southeast Asian refu- gees. The majority of Hmong people are unemployed, lack formal educa- tion, and are still learning English. The Hmong are animistic they hold a belief that all natural objects, including human beings, have souls and follow ancestor worship.
They believe in reincarnation and are patrilineal and patrilocal. Family names follow the clan system, of which there are 10 in Melbourne. Traditionally, the Hmong put a high value on having many children, particularly boys, since they could help in farming and continue traditional practices such as worshiping ancestral spirits, caring for their parents in old age, and carrying on the clan name.
Such traditional customs are still practiced Liamputtong Rice, I conducted ethno- graphic interviews covering a number of issues concerning childbearing and childrearing, including infant feeding practices, with 27 Hmong women in Melbourne, Victoria. The demographic characteristics of Hmong women in this study are presented in Table 1. Entry into the Hmong community was sought from community leaders.
The Hmong community was aware and informed of my presence and of my research purpose. The women were initially recruited through a community health centre where they and their families frequently visit, and also from personal net- work of the bicultural researcher who is a Hmong native-born woman. Liamputtong Table 1. The date of interview was then arranged to suit the woman. The women were then individually interviewed in their own homes after an informed consent was obtained.
I conducted all interviews in the Hmong language with the assistance of a bicultural research assistant. In general, each interview took between two and three hours. Do you breastfeed or bottlefeed your baby? What is the reason for you to breastfeed or bottlefeed your baby? What do you believe is the best way to feed your newborn infant?
What do you think about breast milk? I attended a number of Hmong ceremonies and participated in Hmong activities. The main interviews and participant observation were conducted between May and July Recordings of interviews were transcribed for detailed analysis.
From these, several themes were derived. Feeding Patterns: Breast, Bottle, or Mixed! Liamputtong Dettwyler, Women in Hmong society have a similar practice. Those who may not produce enough breastmilk rely on traditional methods to stim- ulate breastmilk. There were seven women who bottlefed and this occurred exclusively in Australia. By the time the baby was home, she no longer produced milk.
Two women adopted a mixed feeding approach: My milk is not enough to feed the baby. So I make some formula to help. It is only with some feeds though.
The multipara mothers breastfed their children while living in Laos and Thailand, but changed to bottlefeeding when they had their last baby in Australia. Reasons women changed their infant patterns are discussed in a later section. Hmong women breastfeed their babies whenever the baby cries for it. Traditionally, Hmong women carry their babies wherever they go, even to work on the farm Liamputtong Rice, The infant is therefore kept near the mother and this enabled feeding as often as possible.
With my children I worked a lot on the farm. I would work the whole day and would come to feed them when they cried. Whenever they cried then I would go to feed them. There was no timing on this. Hm 21 Nearly all women continued breastfeeding until their next baby was born.
Hmong women also believed that breastmilk is best for a newborn infant since it makes the baby healthy. This makes breastmilk the cleanest and best food for a newborn infant: Breastmilk is the best thing for the baby.
So it means that the baby will get the best thing from you. That is why it is much better. Some women said that colostrum does not taste as nice as their real milk. Real milk is sweet; colostrum is not. Since colostrum is yellowish, it is not real milk, and this makes many mothers squeeze it out before offering their breast to the baby.
Thus it is not clean and will cause ill health in the newborn baby: You have to squeeze all that away and feed the baby with the pure white milk only. I think it is not clean; it might be pus or something because it looks like pus and I think it is not good for the baby. I think that if you feed the baby, the baby might have health problems and it makes the baby sick. Since women continued to breastfeed, they have milk in their breast all the time.
You ask them to come to feed for three mornings and after the third morning you have milk or after the second morning you have breastmilk; then you feed yours. Hm 07 Hmong women mentioned that only some mothers may produce good quality and delicious milk. For mothers who have tasty milk, their babies will be strong and grow well.
On the contrary, some women may have abundant breastmilk but it is not tasty enough and their children may not grow well: My milk was delicious and my children grew very quick and were also very strong. For some that have delicious milk, their babies will drink a lot and when they are about four months they are able to roll over and you have to not let them lie near the edge of the bed because they will be strong and may roll off the bed.
As a result, women may have to change their patterns of infant feeding when their circumstances change. There are several reasons for changing their patterns. Learning English and Preparation for Employment Hmong women mentioned that they needed to attend English school in their new home, so they stopped breastfeeding their children: We are living here now and we have to go to school and go out and we have no extra hand, so that is why we bottlefeed.
Because we can leave the baby with someone else that is why we bottlefeed. However, she returned to breastfeeding with her last child, because she had learned English and hence did not need to leave the baby with others: Downloaded By: [La Trobe University Library] At: 7 January All children were breastfed except Sheng, who was bottle fed.
Only one was bottlefed because I was going to school. I was learning English and I had to leave the baby with someone else. But with the last one I breastfed her again. So if I gave them bottle milk, then there was no one to look after them and because I could not go to school, I let them stay on my breasts. People say that the formula is not as good. So I breastfed because I did not need to go to school. Hm 06 Women also mentioned the need to prepare for employment as a reason for changing their feeding practices.
Although there were only three women who were employed at the time this study was conducted, several women believed that they must be prepared for any employment opportunity that might arise. For them, the best way was not to commence breastfeeding at all.
The Availability of Infant Formula The availability of infant formula is another factor that causes a change in feeding practices of some mothers.
Get better care now. We asked participants about their personal or professional experiences with Hmong breastfeeding, influences on Hmong breastfeeding decisions, and recommendations to increase breastfeeding among Hmong women. Hmong in Minnesota. After creating the list, I created an email prompt to introduce myself, the HBI, and interest in involvement. This open enrollment, choose a plan that includes access to our world-class providers.
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Mothers who breastfeed have less risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Breastfed babies visit the physician less often, are less likely to be hospitalized or die from SIDS, and need fewer prescriptions than formula-fed infants. Early and regular prenatal care is essential to a healthy pregnancy. Prenatal care includes maternal and child health education, physical exams and monitoring, and supplemental resources for pregnant women and their families NICHD, In , there were 2, Hmong births in Minnesota.
Cesarean section, or surgical delivery, carries all the risks of any major surgery, including bleeding, infection, complications from anesthesia, blood clots and postpartum depression. Infants born by cesarean section are twice as likely to have breathing problems.
These risks increase with each subsequent surgical birth. Women's and Children's Health Network, Infants born prematurely can suffer a host of different health consequences throughout their lifetimes.
These may include intestinal and vision problems, hearing loss, asthma or chronic lung disease, neurological and behavioral problems, and high health care costs. Low birth weight also increases the chances of developing certain health conditions later in life, including diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and obesity.
March of Dimes, Postpartum care is an ongoing process in the weeks following birth, and includes monitoring mothers and newborns for health complications and providing physical, social and psychological support.
In Hmong culture, nyob nruab hlis is the first 30 days immediately following childbirth. In this period, Hmong Women are instructed by their mothers and elders to observe certain practices to keep them, their babies, and other Hmong households in good health. Common practices include:. Prior to childbirth, families of pregnant Hmong women prepare enough chicken and herbs tshuaj rau qaib to last through the nyob nruab hlis period. Postpartum, Hmong mothers prepare and eat hot rice with the boiled chicken broth and herbs.
New Hmong mothers are prohibited from visiting other Hmong homes within 30 days after childbirth. In addition, skilled lactation care is crucial during the postpartum hospital stay and in the weeks and months following birth, to assist women in overcoming the challenges and barriers they encounter during the breastfeeding journey. The best health outcomes occur when infants and mothers breastfeed immediately after birth, exclusively feed breastmilk only no supplements such as water or formula and continue breastfeeding for at least one year American Academy of Pediatrics, The Hmong in Southeast Asia were a breastfeeding culture.
Cross-nursing was practiced in instances where a mother was unable to breastfeed her own child. Hmong immigrants, however, quickly adopted what is perceived as the American way of feeding babies and abandoned breastfeeding in favor of feeding infant formula. Many believe formula will make children taller and stonger. Traditional Hmong culture forbids drinking of breastmilk except by infants and young children who are not yet weaned from the breast.
It is said that breaking this rule will result in being struck by lightning. Shamans can perform practices to exempt themselves from this rule, and there also may be an exception made if the milk will be used as a medicine for an ill person.
The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding initiation, without interruption, immediately after birth within the first hour. Early breastfeeding initiation increases the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and longer breastfeeding duration.
In , However, wide disparities persist between cultural groups within racial groups. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as breastmilk only with no supplementation by infant formula or water medications are not considered supplements AAP, Feeding newborns supplements, such as infant formula, increases risks for health complications and disrupts the infant microbiome. It may also negatively affect milk supply and lead to early weaning WIC, Optimally, the breastfeeding relationship will continue for at least one AAP, to two years WHO, or longer as mutually desired.
However, many women wean in the first days and weeks, often earlier than they had hoped. Milk production is a major self-reported concern for Minnesota WIC Hmong mothers, especially in the early weeks of breastfeeding but continuing for several months. Many Hmong mothers report that they have changed their minds as a reason for stopping breastfeeding, perhaps due to breastfeeding difficulties, or lack of support from family members.
This may be due to misunderstanding of infant cues, such as assuming that crying always means the baby is hungry. The Breastfeeding Peer Program partners peer counselors with postpartum mothers to educate, support, and encourage breastfeeding.
The peer counselors have experience breastfeeding and speak the same language as the mothers they serve. Perinatal and breastfeeding outcomes are important indicators of maternal and child health. Adequate prenatal care, healthy full-term birth, and appropriate postpartum care have lifelong impacts on the health of mothers and babies. Perinatal factors also impact breastfeeding outcomes. Prenatal Care Early and regular prenatal care is essential to a healthy pregnancy. Births In , there were 2, Hmong births in Minnesota.
The top five were: 1. Health East St. Regions Hospital 3. Maple Grove Hospital 4. United Hospital 5. Mercy Hospital. Women's and Children's Health Network, Infants born prematurely can suffer a host of different health consequences throughout their lifetimes. Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is important for the health of both infants and mothers MDH, Non-Hispanic Asian mothers ranked second lowest in initiating breastfeeding in Breastfeeding Exclusivity and Duration Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as breastmilk only with no supplementation by infant formula or water medications are not considered supplements AAP, Duration Optimally, the breastfeeding relationship will continue for at least one AAP, to two years WHO, or longer as mutually desired.
Reasons for Stopping Breastfeeding. WIC Peer program.