Register Now. Like in elastic-waisted pants, the boxer fabric is folded over at the waist to create a casing. The elastic is threaded through the casing and causes the boxer fabric to gather. This is a great solution for men who are allergic to latex, sometimes found inelastic. However, this waistband usually leaves vertical red imprints on the body.
A critical analysis of the role of underwear type in male subfertility. During the 16th century, the farthingale was popular. Traffic pollutants affect fertility Men underwear function men. Table II. Rayon garments also became widely available in the post-war period. The potential of mild testicular heating as a safe, effective and reversible contraceptive method for men.
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Corset Vedette Reduce your clothing sizes effortlessly. Has a narrow strip of material along the centre of the garment's rear which sits between the wearer's buttocks and connects the front or pouch to the waistband behind the wearer. Panty Girdle:. For those who do not like revealing underwear, boxers are the ideal choice. Retrieved Men underwear function April It Men underwear function the spine. Designers such as Calvin Klein began featuring near-naked models in their advertisements for white briefs. It will help prevent complications in the pregnant woman. These have an elasticized Darwen escorts at or near the Men underwear function waist, and leg sections that end at or near the groin. Undergarments commonly worn by women today include brassieres and Busted mr biggs and r kelly. Corset This garment is designed to close the ribs, thereby reducing the waist size and producing that dream figure. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Archived from the original on 21 May What Is the Purpose of Garter Belts?
Of all the things in your closet that you need, underwear is highest priority.
- They serve to keep outer garments from being soiled or damaged by bodily excretions , to lessen the friction of outerwear against the skin, to shape the body, and to provide concealment or support for parts of it.
- Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion.
- A number of different types of underwear or undergarments serves a unique range of purposes.
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Only the upper classes could have afforded imported silk. In the UK in the s, tight jeans gave briefs a continued edge over boxer shorts among young men, but a decade later boxers were given a boost by Nick Kamen 's performance in Levi 's "Launderette" TV commercial for its jeans , during which he stripped down to a pair of white boxer shorts in a public laundromat. The wide choice of colors and prints available in boxer shorts is part of their appeal. A woman wearing low-rise trousers may expose the upper rear portion of her thong underwear is said to display a " whale tail ". Prevents the accumulation irregularities in the crotch and hip area.
Men underwear function. What To Look When Buying Men's Underwear
Women's undergarments collectively are called lingerie. They also are called intimate clothing and intimates. An undershirt vest in the United Kingdom is a piece of underwear covering the torso , while underpants often pants in the United Kingdom , drawers , and shorts cover the genitals and buttocks. Terms for specific undergarments are shown in the table below. Not wearing underpants under outer clothing is known in American slang as freeballing for men and as going commando  for either sex.
The act of a woman not wearing a bra is sometimes referred to as freeboobing. Underwear is worn for a variety of reasons. They keep outer garments from being soiled by perspiration , urine ,  semen , feces and menstrual blood  Men's briefs serve the same function for the male genitalia , and women's brassieres provide support for the breasts. A corset may be worn as a foundation garment to alter a woman's body shape. Women may wear sports bras which provide greater support, thus increasing comfort and reducing the chance of damage to the ligaments of the chest during high-impact exercises such as jogging.
In cold climates, underwear may constitute an additional layer of clothing helping to keep the wearer warm. Underwear may also be used to preserve the wearer's modesty — for instance, some women wear camisoles and slips petticoats under clothes that are sheer. Conversely, some types of underwear can be worn for sexual titillation, such as edible underwear , crotchless panties and thongs.
Some items of clothing are designed exclusively as underwear, while others such as T-shirts and certain types of shorts are suitable both as underwear and as outer clothing. The suitability of underwear as outer clothing is, apart from the indoor or outdoor climate, largely dependent on societal norms, fashion, and the requirements of the law. If made of suitable material, some underwear can serve as nightwear or swimsuits. The loincloth is the simplest form of underwear; it was probably the first undergarment worn by human beings.
In warmer climates the loincloth was often the only clothing worn effectively making it an outer garment rather than an undergarment , as was doubtless its origin, but in colder regions the loincloth often formed the basis of a person's clothing and was covered by other garments. A loincloth may take three major forms. The first, and simplest, is simply a long strip of material which is passed between the legs and then around the waist.
Archaeologists have found the remains of such loincloths made of leather dating back 7, years. Another form is usually called a cache-sexe : a triangle of cloth is provided with strings or loops, which are used to fasten the triangle between the legs and over the genitals. Egyptian king Tutankhamun BC — BC was found buried with numerous linen loincloths of this style.
Men are said to have worn loincloths in ancient Greece and Rome , though it is unclear whether Greek women wore undergarments. There is some speculation that only slaves wore loincloths and that citizens did not wear undergarments beneath their chitons.
Mosaics of the Roman period indicate that women primarily in an athletic context, whilst wearing nothing else sometimes wore strophiae breastcloths or brassieres made of soft leather, along with subligacula which were either in the form of shorts or loincloths.
Subligacula were also worn by men. The fabric used for loincloths may have been wool , linen or a linsey-woolsey blend. Only the upper classes could have afforded imported silk. The loincloth continues to be worn by people around the world — it is the traditional form of undergarment in many Asian societies, for example.
In various, mainly tropical, cultures, the traditional male dress may still consist of only a single garment below the waist or even none at all, with underwear as optional, including the Indian dhoti and lungi , or the Scottish kilt.
In the Middle Ages , western men's underwear became looser fitting. The loincloth was replaced by loose, trouser -like clothing called braies , which the wearer stepped into and then laced or tied around the waist and legs at about mid-calf.
Wealthier men often wore chausses as well, which only covered the legs. In the later Middle Ages they were used exclusively as undergarments. By the time of the Renaissance , braies had become shorter to accommodate longer styles of chausses. Chausses were also giving way to form-fitting hose ,  which covered the legs and feet.
However, many types of braies, chausses and hose were not intended to be covered up by other clothing, so they were not actually underwear in the strict sense.
Braies were usually fitted with a front flap that was buttoned or tied closed. This codpiece allowed men to urinate without having to remove the braies completely. Henry VIII of England began padding his codpiece, which caused a spiralling trend of larger and larger codpieces that only ended by the end of the 16th century.
It has been speculated that the King may have had the sexually transmitted disease syphilis , and his large codpiece may have included a bandage soaked in medication to relieve its symptoms. Codpieces were sometimes used as a pocket for holding small items. Over the upper part of their bodies, both medieval men and women usually wore a close-fitting shirt-like garment called a chemise in France, or a smock or shift in England.
The forerunner of the modern-day shirt, the chemise was tucked into a man's braies, under his outer clothing. Women wore a chemise underneath their gowns or robes , sometimes with petticoats over the chemise. Elaborately quilted petticoats might be displayed by a cut-away dress, in which case they served a skirt rather than an undergarment. During the 16th century, the farthingale was popular. This was a petticoat stiffened with reed or willow rods so that it stood out from a woman's body like a cone extending from the waist.
Corsets also began to be worn about this time. At first they were called pairs of bodies, which refers to a stiffened decorative bodice worn on top of another bodice stiffened with buckram , reeds, canes, whalebone or other materials. These were not the small-waisted, curved corsets familiar from the Victorian era , but straight-lined stays that flattened the bust.
There is a myth that Crusaders , worried about the fidelity of their wives, forced them to wear chastity belts. There is no reference, image, or surviving belt to support this story.
Men's braies and hose were eventually replaced by simple cotton, silk, or linen drawers, which were usually knee-length trousers with a button flap in the front. In , findings in Lengberg Castle , in Austria , showed that lace and linen brassiere-like garments, one of which greatly resembled the modern bra, date back to hundreds of years before it was thought to exist.
The invention of the spinning jenny machines and the cotton gin in the second half of the 18th century made cotton fabrics widely available. This allowed factories to mass-produce underwear, and for the first time, people began buying undergarments in stores rather than making them at home. Women's stays of the 18th century were laced behind and drew the shoulders back to form a high, round bosom and erect posture.
Coloured stays were popular. With the relaxed country styles of the end of the century, stays became shorter and were unboned or only lightly boned, and were now called corsets.
As tight waists became fashionable in the s, the corset was again boned and laced to form the figure. By the s, a tiny " wasp " waist came to be seen as a symbol of beauty, and the corsets were stiffened with whalebone or steel to accomplish this. Tight lacing of a corset sometimes led to a woman needing to retire to the fainting room.
By the s, the dress reform movement was campaigning against the pain and damage to internal organs and bones caused by tight lacing. Inez Gaches-Sarraute invented the "health corset", with a straight-fronted bust made to help support the wearer's muscles. The corset was usually worn over a thin shirt-like shift of linen or cotton or muslin.
Pantalettes originated in France in the early 19th century, and quickly spread to Britain and America. Pantalettes were a form of leggings or long drawers. They could be one-piece or two separate garments, one for each leg, attached at the waist with buttons or laces. The crotch was left open for hygiene reasons. As skirts became fuller from the s, women wore many petticoats to achieve a fashionable bell shape. By the s, stiffened crinolines and later hoop skirts allowed ever wider skirts to be worn.
The bustle , a frame or pad worn over the buttocks to enhance their shape, had been used off and on by women for two centuries, but reached the height of its popularity in the later s, and went out of fashion for good in the s. Women dressed in crinolines often wore drawers under them for modesty and warmth. Another common undergarment of the late 19th century for men, women, and children was the union suit. Invented in Utica, New York and patented in , this was a one-piece front-buttoning garment usually made of knitted material with sleeves extending to the wrists and legs down to the ankles.
It had a buttoned flap known colloquially as the "access hatch", "drop seat", or "fireman's flap" in the back to ease visits to the toilet. The union suit was the precursor of long johns , a two-piece garment consisting of a long-sleeved top and long pants possibly named after American boxer John L. Sullivan who wore a similar garment in the ring. The jockstrap was invented in , by C.
By the early 20th century, the mass-produced undergarment industry was booming, and competition forced producers to come up with all sorts of innovative and gimmicky designs to compete. The Hanes company emerged from this boom and quickly established itself as a top manufacturer of union suits, which were common until the s.
Meanwhile, designers of women's undergarments relaxed the corset. The invention of new, flexible but supportive materials allowed whalebone and steel bones to be removed.
The emancipation or liberty bodice offered an alternative to constricting corsets, and in Australia and the UK the liberty bodice became a standard item for girls as well as women. Men's underwear was also on the rise. One product manufactured by his firm was tightly fitting boxers that resembled modern underwear. Though the company was bankrupt by the early 20th century, it had some impact on men's underwear design. Underwear advertising first made an appearance in the s. Leyendecker of the "Kenosha Klosed Krotch".
Early underwear advertisements emphasised durability and comfort, and fashion was not regarded as a selling point. By the end of the s, Chalmers Knitting Company split the union suit into upper and lower sections, effectively inventing the modern undershirt and drawers.
Women wore lacier versions of this basic duo known as the camisole and tap pants. In , the US had its first professional underwear designer. Lindsay "Layneau" Boudreaux, a French immigrant, established the short-lived panty company Layneau. Though her company closed within one year, it had a significant impact on many levels. Boudreaux showed the world that an American woman could establish and run a company, and she also caused a revolution in the underwear industry. In , a New York socialite named Mary Phelps Jacob created the first modern brassiere by tying two handkerchiefs together with ribbon.
Jacob's original intention was to cover the whalebone sticking out of her corset, which was visible through her sheer dress. Jacob began making brassieres for her family and friends, and news of the garment soon spread by word of mouth. By , Jacob had a patent for her design and was marketing it throughout the US. Although women had worn brassiere-like garments in years past, Jacob's was the first to be successfully marketed and widely adopted.
By the end of the decade, trouser-like " bloomers ", which were popularized by Amelia Jenks Bloomer — but invented by Elizabeth Smith Miller , gained popularity with the so-called Gibson Girls who enjoyed pursuits such as cycling and tennis.
This new female athleticism helped push the corset out of style. The other major factor in the corset's demise was the fact that metal was globally in short supply during the First World War. Steel-laced corsets were dropped in favour of the brassiere. Meanwhile, World War I soldiers were issued button-front shorts as underwear. The buttons attached to a separate piece of cloth, or "yoke", sewn to the front of the garment, and tightness of fit was adjusted by means of ties on the sides.
This design proved so popular that it began to supplant the union suit in popularity by the end of the war. Rayon garments also became widely available in the post-war period. In the s, manufacturers shifted emphasis from durability to comfort. Union suit advertisements raved about patented new designs that reduced the number of buttons and increased accessibility.
A new woven cotton fabric called nainsook gained popularity in the s for its durability. Retailers also began selling preshrunk undergarments. Also in the s, as hemlines of women's dresses rose, women began to wear stockings to cover the exposed legs. Women's bloomers also became much shorter.
The shorter bloomers became looser and less supportive as the boyish flapper look came into fashion. By the end of the decade, they came to be known as "step-ins", very much like modern panties but with wider legs.
They were worn for the increased flexibility they afforded. The garter belt was invented to keep stockings from falling. In , Maidenform , a company operated by Ida Rosenthal , a Jewish immigrant from Russia, developed the brassiere and introduced modern cup sizes for bras. Modern men's underwear was largely an invention of the s.
On 19 January , Coopers Inc. Designed by an "apparel engineer" named Arthur Kneibler, briefs dispensed with leg sections and had a Y-shaped overlapping fly. Jockey briefs proved so popular that over 30, pairs were sold within three months of their introduction.
Coopers, having renamed the company Jockey , sent its "Mascul-line" plane to make special deliveries of "masculine support" briefs to retailers across the US. In , when Jockeys were introduced in the UK, they sold at the rate of 3, a week.
In this decade, companies also began selling buttonless drawers fitted with an elastic waistband. These were the first true boxer shorts, which were named for their resemblance to the shorts worn by professional fighters.
Scovil Manufacturing introduced the snap fastener at this time, which became a popular addition to various kinds of undergarments. Women of the s brought the corset back, now called the " girdle ". The garment lacked the whalebone and metal supports and usually came with a brassiere now usually called a "bra" and attached garters.
Undergarments were harder to find as well, since soldiers abroad had priority to obtain them. Meanwhile, some women adopted the corset once again, now called the " waspie " for the wasp -shaped waistline it gave the wearer. Many women began wearing the strapless bra as well, which gained popularity for its ability to push the breasts up and enhance cleavage. Before the s, underwear consisted of simple, white pieces of clothing which were not to be shown in public.
In the s, underwear came to be promoted as a fashion item in its own right, and came to be made in prints and colours. Manufacturers also experimented with rayon and newer fabrics like Dacron , nylon, and Spandex. Women's undergarments began to emphasize the breasts instead of the waist. The decade saw the introduction of the bullet bra pointed bust, inspired by Christian Dior 's " New Look ", which featured pointed cups.
The original Wonderbra and push-up bra by Frederick's of Hollywood finally hit it big. Pantyhose , also called tights in British English, which combined panties and hose into one garment, made their first appearance in ,  invented by Glen Raven Mills of North Carolina. The company later introduced seamless pantyhose in , spurred by the popularity of the miniskirt.
With the emergence of the woman's movement in the United States sales for pantyhose dropped off during the later half of the s having soared initially. Underwear as fashion reached its peak in the s and s, and underwear advertisers forgot about comfort and durability, at least in advertising.
Sex appeal became the main selling point, in swimwear as well, bringing to fruition a trend that had been building since at least the flapper era. The tank top , an undershirt named after the type of swimwear dating from the s known as a tank suit or maillot , became popular warm-weather casual outerwear in the US in the s. Performers such as Madonna and Cyndi Lauper were also often seen wearing their undergarments on top of other clothes.
Although worn for decades by exotic dancers , in the s the G-string first gained popularity in South America, particularly in Brazil. Originally a style of swimsuit , the back of the garment is so narrow that it disappears between the buttocks. Today, the thong is one of the fastest-selling styles of underwear among women, and is also worn by men. While health and practicality had previously been emphasized, in the s retailers of men's underpants began focusing on fashion and sex appeal.
Designers such as Calvin Klein began featuring near-naked models in their advertisements for white briefs. The increased wealth of the gay community helped to promote a diversity of undergarment choices. I told B I needed some socks too and at least 30 pairs of Jockey shorts. TODAY does have affiliate relationships with various online retailers.
So, while every product is independently selected, if you buy something through our links, we may get a small share of the revenue. Men, it's time for an underwear overhaul.
According to Jonathan Shokrian, the founder and CEO of underwear brand MeUndies , guys should be replacing their underwear every six to nine months. Even if that sounds a little extreme to you, the odds are pretty good that a least a few of your boxers, briefs or boxer briefs should be retired and replaced.
Luckily, plenty of brands have made improvements to both material and cut that will change how you feel and look in your clothes. These classic cotton trunks are affordable and a great way to bulk up your supply everyday essentials. At Style Girlfriend, we like the Silver style from Mack Weldon, made of naturally antimicrobial material, with a no-roll waistband and mesh zones for cool comfort. We love that the Bonobos underwear shopping experience is as close to custom as you can get without having to do much work.
Additionally, you then choose between two inseam lengths, trunk or boxer brief. For working out, Collins recommends these Nike compression shorts. To say that Tommy John has a passionate fan base would be a bit of an understatement. Consider it the same principle.
Cheap Vs Luxury Men's Underwear | 5 Differences Between Cheaper And High-End Under Wear
Is self-reported type of underwear worn associated with markers of testicular function among men at a fertility center? Elevated scrotal temperatures are known to adversely affect testicular function. However, the epidemiologic literature on type of underwear, as a proxy of scrotal temperature, and male testicular function is inconsistent.
This is a cross-sectional study including male partners of couples seeking infertility treatment at a fertility center — Self-reported information on type of underwear worn was collected from a take-home questionnaire. Semen samples were analyzed following World Health Organization guidelines. Enzyme immunoassays were used to assess reproductive hormone levels and neutral comet assays for sperm DNA damage.
We fit linear regression models to evaluate the association between underwear type and testicular function, adjusting for covariates and accounting for multiple semen samples. Men had a median interquartile range age of Sperm concentration and total count were inversely related to serum FSH.
No associations with other measured reproductive outcomes were observed. Underwear use was self-reported in a questionnaire and there may be misclassification of the exposure. The cross-sectional design limits causal inference, and residual confounding is still possible owing to lack of information on other modifiable life styles that can also modify scrotal heat e.
Blood sampling was not limited to the morning and, as a result, we may have missed associations with testosterone or other hormones with significant circadian variation despite statistical adjustment for time of blood draw. Confirmation of these findings, and in particular the findings on FSH levels suggesting a compensatory mechanism, is warranted.
None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare. Three meta-analyses Carlsen et al. Some have also reported a concomitant downward trend in testosterone levels among men Andersson et al.
These negative trends may be the consequence of environmental and lifestyle factors that may directly contribute to diminished testicular function, such as increased exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals Bergman et al.
However, it is still unclear which factor s is responsible for this decline. Some epidemiological studies have investigated whether men who wear tighter underwear, a modifiable lifestyle factor strongly related to higher scrotal temperatures Brindley, ; Ahmad et al.
Men between the ages of 18—56 years and without a history of vasectomy were eligible to participate in a study aimed at evaluating environmental determinants of fertility Meeker et al.
All participants signed an informed consent form. Between and , each man provided one semen sample and one blood sample on the same day. From the men who provided at least one semen sample, we excluded men who did not provide information on their usual type of underwear, 22 men who were azoospermic and 24 men who reported a history of cancer including five men who reported a history of testicular cancer.
Men included in the main analysis had comparable demographic and reproductive characteristics to men who were excluded due to lack of data on self-reported type of underwear data not shown. The final study sample for the primary outcome, semen quality, included men contributing semen samples. Secondary outcomes were serum levels of reproductive hormones and sperm DNA damage, assessed in a subset of and men, respectively. BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.
The participants completed a nurse-administered questionnaire that contained additional questions on lifestyle factors, reproductive health and medical history. While jockeys are longer than briefs, with length falling right above the knee, briefs generally extend to the middle of the thigh.
Semen volume mL was measured by an andrologist using a graduated serological pipet. A minimum of sperm cells from at least four different fields were analyzed from each specimen. Strict Kruger scoring criteria were used to classify men as having normal or below normal morphology Kruger et al. Andrologists were trained in basic semen analysis and participate regularly in internal quality control.
In a subset of men, the neutral comet assay was used to assess sperm DNA integrity using a previously described protocol Meeker et al. Comet extent is a measure of total comet length from the beginning of the head to the last visible pixel in the tail.
In a subset of men, one non-fasting blood sample was collected between the hours of 9 am and 4 pm on the same day and time that the semen sample was collected. Blood samples were centrifuged at 1. Sex hormone-binding globulin was measured using a phase two-site chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay Immulite; DPC Inc.
Linear regression models accounting for multiple semen samples within the same man were used were to evaluate the association between underwear type and testicular function. Confounding was assessed using prior knowledge based on biological relevance and descriptive statistics from our study population. Models for reproductive hormones were further adjusted for time to blood sampling hours.
We also evaluated to what extent any observed differences in semen parameters were explained by differences in sex hormones by fitting regression models where sex hormones were added as additional predictors to the multivariable adjusted model.
Last, we evaluated the robustness of the findings by conducting a series of sensitivity analyses. Statistical analyses were performed with SAS version 9. Men had a median IQR age of The distribution [median IQRs ] of sperm concentration and total count among the semen samples was Table I Demographic and reproductive characteristics a of men attending a fertility center by reported type of underwear worn. Demographic and reproductive characteristics a of men attending a fertility center by reported type of underwear worn.
Reported type of underwear worn was significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count and total motile count Table II.
Specifically, compared to men who reported not usually wearing boxers e. Similar patterns were observed for total sperm count data not shown. These analyses are restricted to men with sperm concentration and reproductive hormone data. SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin. No other markers of testicular function, such as serum reproductive hormones or sperm DNA integrity parameters, were related to type of underwear. The differences in sperm concentration and total sperm count according to type of underwear were attenuated and no longer significant when models were further adjusted for serum FSH levels.
These findings are consistent with the presence of a compensatory increase in gonadotrophin secretion secondary to testicular injury due to elevated scrotal temperatures caused by wearing tight underwear.
Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing a beneficial effect of wearing loose underwear on sperm production Sanger and Friman, ; Parazzini et al. In one of the first studies on the topic including two men, in which one of them had to wear tight underwear for some months and then loose underwear, and the second one had to wear loose underwear first and then tight underwear, authors reported that all semen parameters gradually decreased while the subjects were in tight conditions and gradually increased while they were in loose conditions Sanger and Friman, Parazzini et al.
Tiemessen et al. Jung et al. They also found a highly significant increase in sperm concentration and total sperm count after nocturnal scrotal cooling for 12 weeks. Sapra et al. However, they did not observe any difference in sperm counts according to type of underwear worn. Also Jurewicz et al. Interestingly, the negative consequences of wearing tight underwear may go beyond sperm production since a previous study suggested that a daily mild increase in testicular temperature, by passing the penis and the empty scrotum through a hole made in close-fitting underwear and also by adding a ring of soft material surrounding the hole in the underwear, could be a potential contraceptive method for men Mieusset and Bujan, No previous studies that we are aware of have investigated the potential association between type of underwear worn and serum reproductive hormone levels.
This hypothesis requires further confirmation in other studies since the association between type of underwear worn and FSH levels is borderline and residual confounding may be possible due to other potential factors not taken into account. The current study has several limitations. First, since our study only included men from couples seeking fertility treatment, it may not be possible to generalize our findings to men from the general population.
However, the men in this study tended to have good semen quality compared to international reference standards World Health Organization, Second, the cross-sectional design limits causal inference. However, while many of our men had a history of previous infertility evaluation and could have made lifestyle changes including changing their type of underwear in response, men were generally blinded to their reproductive hormone levels and sperm DNA fragmentation.
Hence, while plausible, the possibility for reverse causation is not only minimized but would be expected to result in associations in the opposite direction of what we found. Third, as is the case for all studies based on self-reported questionnaires, measurement error and misclassification of the exposure type of underwear worn is a concern.
While we are unaware of studies evaluating the validity of self-reported type of underwear worn, we have no reason to believe this behavior would be incorrectly reported by men. Fourth, blood sampling was not limited to morning and as a result, we may have missed associations with testosterone or other hormones with significant circadian variation despite statistical adjustment for time of blood draw.
Finally, residual confounding is still possible due to lack of information on other modifiable life styles that can also modify scrotal heat e. However, one of the main strengths of our study is the comprehensive adjustment of other possible confounding variables due to the standardized assessment of a wide range of participant characteristics that may minimize residual confounding. Other important strengths, compared to previous manuscripts on the topic, include a considerably larger sample size and including information on a variety of markers of testicular function, which provide additional insights on the role of underwear choices on the functioning of the hypothalamic—pituitary—gonadal axis beyond the traditional focus on semen quality.
A special thank you to all of the study participants. All the authors of this article have made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data for the work, and have contributed drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and have approved the final version to be published and have agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
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Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. Correspondence address. E-mail: lminguez hsph. Oxford Academic.