But today surgical and chemical castration, which causes a man to lose the function of his testicles, is increasing throughout the world. One reason is the growing incidence of prostate cancer. Professor Wassersug is researching the motivating factors behind the modern day voluntary eunuch. He speaks with authority about the issue after unexpectedly becoming a eunuch in when at aged 52 he was diagnosed with prostate cancer and underwent orchiectomy himself. For him, the experience has been life changing as the reduction in testosterone takes hold including weight gain, muscle loss, shrinking genitals and hot flushes.
Jennifer W. Some now inject toxins directly into the testicles in order to produce sufficient damage that a surgeon will perform an orchiectomy for damage control Some members wrote favorable comments on the site after completing the survey, which aided recruitment. Castrated men — eunuchs — were often admitted to special social classes Latin girls anal Castration voluntary used particularly to staff bureaucracies and palace households: in particular, the harem. Some of Castration voluntary instruments used for creating and treating eunuchs.
Pleasure nl. On the same subjet
Gracie — Chick with a Dick. Vale et al. Voluntart, the ancient Romans, vlluntary they would militarily How does a female ejaculate another region, such as Gaul part of modern day France would Castration voluntary many members of that region. Retrieved 31 December And it is right, biologically, that their genetic line should be ended. All of the eunuchs were captured ethnic Chinese from the Central Plains that came from two sources. It appears that the risk Castdation for becoming Castration voluntary cutter are essentially risk factors for obtaining castration rather than performing it. The use of testosterone Castration voluntary minimize or eliminate these risks. A large amount of trade between Guangdong and Vietnam happened during his reign. Once removed, the subject is infertile. The emasculation of captured Chinese boys guaranteed a continuous supply of eunuchs to serve in the Liao Dynasty harem.
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- But today surgical and chemical castration, which causes a man to lose the function of his testicles, is increasing throughout the world.
- Everyone should be aware that a multitude of men are either chemically or surgically castrated for a variety of reasons in contemporary Western society.
- Castration also known as orchidectomy is any action, surgical , chemical , or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles : the male gonad.
However, during the interwar period, different uses of vasectomy were tested and developed in the medical field. During the s, the Austrian Steinach made this into a famous technique for rejuvenating the male body. In parallel, vasectomy was practiced from onwards in accordance with eugenic laws purporting to regenerate the social body.
At the same time, the operation was practiced discreetly and even secretly in a number of European countries as a method of contraception.
While only the latter use endured after the Second World War, the slow pace of the legalization and diffusion of voluntary male sterilization in certain countries underscores the complex relation between virility and sterility that still exists today. Castration became shameful and a source of deep anxiety for men who, nevertheless, had to bring themselves to do it for medical reasons leprosy, tuberculosis or gout.
New therapeutic techniques such as vasectomy—the severing and ligature of the vas deferens—rendered castration obsolete, which was only marginally practiced in Europe after as part of medical-administrative measures and psychiatric treatments. As a result, the ritual castration still practiced by the Skoptsy a sect of old Russian believers during the s, which spread to Romania from drew the attention of medical and social science researchers up through the s: they were the last practitioners of a bygone form of masculinity, and had striking physiognomic, psychological, and sociological characteristics.
Research that commonly associated vitality and virility took a particular interest in testicles. For instance, the theories that Pr. Eugen Steinach developed in Vienna during the s, which were based on the study of castration, conferred unparalleled rejuvenating qualities on substances drawn from testicles.
He then developed a surgical procedure to stimulate the characteristics associated with virility; preventing the production of sperm would increase the benefits of male hormonal production, which was still poorly understood testosterone was isolated only in Under the name of the Steinach operation, vasectomy became a famous rejuvenation method practiced throughout Europe. Another surgical technique, based on the supposed revitalizing qualities of testicles, was developed at the same time.
Vasectomy was also used during the interwar period in connection with eugenic projects. Laws imposing sterilization were adopted in Europe between and in a number of democratic countries Canton of Vaud in Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia and Iceland , and especially in Germany, where the Nazi regime passed a law on July 14, which led to the sterilization of , people.
For the latter, the physical and psychological consequences of the operation were not considered at all, for their virility was considered disqualified from the outset.
The wide diffusion of vasectomy as a therapeutic and eugenic method also fostered its development as a contraceptive method.
These different uses were sometimes confused. The first secret vasectomies were conducted in Austria in In the late s, a highly organized network, notably including doctors, was organized within anarchist circles in Vienna and Graz, enabling the sterilization of certain voluntary workers. In both Austria and France, surgeons were sentenced to prison or forced labour, as sterilization was likened to castration, although the voluntarily sterilized were not prosecuted.
After the Second World War, in many European countries that had previously adopted eugenic legislation, vasectomy was still used in an authoritarian manner on men considered to be deficient or handicapped. In fact, it became a commonplace method of sterilization during the s and s in so-called third world countries notably in India, Bangladesh and China , and developed widely in the United States and Australia.
For example, the Jeunes Libertaires group organized operations in Switzerland from France. In Great Britain, the Family Planning Association, which was created in , opened the first vasectomy clinic in Cardiff in , four years before the operation was fully legalized.
The first legal promotion campaign for vasectomy launched by the Marie Stopes centre in appeared in publications for men, and the method was widely offered to couples as a contraceptive option. In the Netherlands, paramedical staff have had the right to proceed with vasectomies since the s, which helped make the practice widespread. The situation was entirely different in France. It nevertheless took until for sterilization for contraceptive purposes to be legalized in France, twelve years after Spain, and at a time when twenty-five specializing centres already existed in England and Wales.
Skip to main content. Search form Chercher dans ce site. On the same subjet Midwives in Europe. Sexology: A European science. Childbirth without pain. From demographic transition to sexual revolutions. Birth Control in Europe. Moving Past Infertility. Themes of the encyclopedia Material civilization.
Political epistemology. European humanism. Europe, Europeans and the World. Wars and traces of war. Gender and Europe. European art. From therapeutic castration to contraceptive vasectomy. Share on Facebook. Facebook Like.
Tweet Widget. Linkedin Share Button. Photographs taken before and after the Steinach operation. Brochure promoting masculine sterilization: Vasectomy: Love without consequences. A reality to recommend to all, Valencia, Solidaridad obrera, Previous Pause Next. Original design by Simple Themes.
The presence of some testosterone in the castrated male does lessen his sex drive, and leads to a certain amount of frustration, which many women find to be a very desirable side effect. Some cutters may be retired vets or ranchers and thus familiar with castration. The concept of castration plays an important role in psychoanalysis ; see , for example, castration anxiety. As children threatened with genital mutilation, they may have come to believe that castration is a method to control undesirable sexual thoughts and activities. Griffith, MD".
Castration voluntary. voluntary castration
The ultimate act of chastity, one of great power and gravity as well. During the formative years of the Roman Republic and their acquisitions of new territories, several deities were adopted into the Roman pantheon. Cults of worship from other lands were amalgamated into their own as the Roman armies spread across surrounding countries to conquer and claim. Others like the cult of Cybele, were sanctioned as official by the Roman Senate. Originating from the Phrygian region of Asia Minor, her worship was introduced to the Greeks and remained as a protectress of great strength.
Eternally accompanied by her lions and as wild as the mountains from which she hails, she was assimilated into the Minoan goddess Rhea Titaness mother to the gods and personification of fertility. A mother figure as well she was similarly associated with indomitable Demeter, whom ruled over hearth and field.
Cybele is a perfect example of the dichotomy seen time and again in Goddesses and their realms of influence. There are many different versions of how this story begins including Zeus jacking off onto Cybele and impregnating her with the hermaphroditic Agdistis.
The gods promptly castrated Agdistis out of fear and buried the penis, which became an almond tree that impregnated a river nymph whom then birthed Attis. Cybele took notice of the comely boy and fell in love. Promising undying fidelity, Attis proceeded to fall in love and attempt to marry a mortal woman.
Cybele became so furious with jealousy that she drove everyone in attendance at the wedding insane including Attis, who fled into the wilderness. Castrating himself in front of a pine tree, Attis bled out and died. Cybele plead with Zeus to aid her in his restoration and after being resurrected, Attis remained her ever faithful consort.
The escapees also reported that they found out up to Chinese men remained captives in Vietnam after they were caught and castrated by the Vietnamese after their ships were blown off course into Vietnam. The Chinese Ministry of Revenue responded by ordering Chinese civilians and soldiers to stop going abroad to foreign countries. A entry in the Ming Shilu recorded that 13 Chinese men from Wenchang including a young man named Wu Rui were captured by the Vietnamese after their ship was blown off course while traveling from Hainan to Guangdong 's Qin subprefecture Qinzhou , after which they ended up near the coast of Vietnam, during the Chenghua Emperor 's rule — After years of service, he was promoted at the death of the Vietnamese ruler in to a military position in northern Vietnam.
A soldier told him of an escape route back to China and Wu Rui escaped to Longzhou. The local chief planned to sell him back to the Vietnamese, but Wu was rescued by the Pingxiang magistrate and then was sent to Beijing to work as a eunuch in the palace.
The Vietnamese government mandated that boys born with defective genitalia were to be reported to officials, in exchange for the town being freed from mandatory labor requirements. The boy would have the option of serving as a eunuch official or serving the palace women when he became ten years old.
The presence of eunuchs in Vietnam was used by the French colonizers to degrade the Vietnamese. In , Thomas Jefferson wrote a bill in Virginia reducing the punishment for rape, polygamy or sodomy from death to castration. In , Alabama lawmaker Steve Hurst proposed a bill requiring certain sex offenses to require the perpetrator be castrated prior to their release from state custody.
In , Judge C. Victor Pyle gave three convicted rapists the sentence of 30 years or castration. Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar , who established the Qajar Dynasty in Iran in the 18th century , was a victim of castration by officers of the previous kingdom. In the over 13 centuries of the Arab slave trade in Africa unknown numbers of Africans were enslaved and shipped to the Middle East. Black boys at the age of eight to twelve had their scrotum and penis completely amputated.
Reportedly, about two of three boys died, but those who survived drew high prices. One victim was lured from Nepal at the age of 14, sold into slavery, locked up, beaten, starved, and forcibly castrated.
He reported that he was held in a brothel with 40 to 50 other boys, many of whom were also castrated. He escaped and made his way back to Nepal. Two non-governmental organizations , one that works with homosexuals in Nepal, and one that works to rescue and rehabilitate trafficked women and children, were co-operating to help and rescue these boys.
A temporary "chemical castration" has been studied and developed as a preventive measure and punishment for several repeated sex crimes , such as rape or other sexually related violence.
In modern times, the Czech Republic practices surgically castrating convicted sex offenders. According to the reports compiled by Council of Europe, a human-rights forum, the central European country physically castrated at least 94 prisoners in the 10 years up to April The Czech Republic defends this procedure as voluntary and effective.
After visiting the Czech Republic, however, he agreed that some form of castration might be of benefit to some sex offenders. In animals, the behavioral effects of gonad removal differ along lines of species and not sex, i.
Some criminologists argue that the apparently lower recidivism rates in castrated male sex offenders compared to non-castrated ones does not prove that it is a biological effect of castration correlation does not equal causation but can be explained by other factors. One suggested factor from game theory is that men who are willing to accept castration to get a shorter prison sentence are those who value freedom from prison higher than men who are not willing to pay the price for freedom in the form of their testicles.
These criminologists also argue that police investigators treating castrated men as less likely to reoffend than non-castrated men may cause an investigation bias and self-fulfilling prophecy.
In Europe, when women were not permitted to sing in church or cathedral choirs in the Roman Catholic Church, boys were castrated to develop a special high voice and to prevent their voices breaking at puberty.
The first documents mentioning castrati are Italian church records from the s. Mozart 's Exultate Jubilate , Allegri 's Miserere and other pieces from this period now sung by sopranos and countertenors were written for castrati. Some of the alto parts of Handel 's Messiah were first sung by a castrato. Castrati include Farinelli , Senesino , Carestini , and Caffarelli.
In Modern times, the Mexican Javier Medina is the only professional opera singer that can perform as a castrato, since he suffered from an involuntary chemical castration, as a result from a cancer treatment that he had before he reached puberty. A number of religions have included castration as a central theme of their practice.
These include:. In South Asia, many hijras live in well-defined, organized, all-hijra communities, led by a guru.
Bahuchara Mata , the main object of hijra veneration, is specifically associated with transvestism and transgenderism. While castration is not a major part of Christianity , Jesus himself acknowledged in a discussion about avoiding adultery and divorce that some are involuntarily castrated or born that way, while some others "make themselves eunuchs" willingly out of a desire to be chaste Matthew — Given Jesus' frequent use of metaphor and hyperbole, e.
Luke , the church has broadly discouraged any understanding of this passage as recommending literal "self-castration". That is consistent with Jesus' claims as a rabbi to uphold the Law given to Moses, e. Matthew , a Law which also discouraged literal castration Deut However, in his own comments Jesus had no condemnation for any of the above. In Acts — , a eunuch is baptized by Philip the Evangelist , demonstrating acceptance of castrated individuals in his church.
The first canon of the First Council of Nicaea in AD forbid clergy members to voluntarily castrate themselves "when in perfect health", but freely accepted those who had been either castrated by others against their will, castrated due to a medical sickness or necessity, or those born as eunuchs. Paul, arguing against self-righteousness regarding circumcision in Galatians , says "As for those agitators, I wish they would go the whole way and emasculate themselves!
Judaism strictly forbids the castration of either humans or animals. The laws of castration including cases of irreversible or un-reversed vasectomy and all other cases where the flow of sperm is known to have been placed into a permanent state of dysfunction with either no hope or no desire to take the steps to repair.
According to Rashi , Kham Ham castrated his father Noah and was cursed as a result. In Judaism, castrated animals are deemed unfit for sacrifice in the Temple in Jerusalem Lev Castrated members of the priestly caste are forbidden to enter certain parts of the temple, to approach the altar, or to make sacrifices, although they could eat their share of the offerings and receive the priestly and Levite gifts Lev.
In Islam , castration is considered a sin and strictly forbidden, whether one performs it on himself or on another. As Abdullah ibn Mas'ood said, "We were on a campaign with the Messenger of Allah blessings and peace of Allah be upon him , and we had no women with us. We said: Why don't we get ourselves castrated? But he forbade us to do that. A subject of castration who is altered before the onset of puberty will retain a high voice, non-muscular build, and small genitals.
The person may not develop pubic hair and will have a low sex drive or none at all. Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive somewhat or even eliminate it altogether.
Castrated people are automatically sterile , because the testes for males and ovaries for females produce sex cells needed for sexual reproduction. Once removed, the subject is infertile. The voice does not change considerably. Body strength and muscle mass can decrease. Body hair may sometimes decrease and is less coarse. Skin is softer and pores are noticeably absent. Castration prevents male pattern baldness if it is done before hair is lost.
However, castration will not restore hair growth after hair has already been lost due to male pattern baldness. Historically, many eunuchs who additionally underwent a penectomy reportedly suffered from urinary incontinence associated with the removal of the penis. Without hormone replacement therapy HRT , typical symptoms similar to those experienced by menopausal women include hot flushes, gradual bone-density loss resulting in osteopenia or osteoporosis, and potential weight gain or redistribution of body fat to the hips and chest.
Replacement of testosterone in the form of gel, patches, or injections can largely reverse these effects, although breast enlargement has also been reported as a possible side effect of testosterone usage. The concept of castration plays an important role in psychoanalysis ; see , for example, castration anxiety.
Castration as a metaphor also plays an important role in psychoanalytically-influenced literary theory, for example Harold Bloom 's The Anxiety of Influence. In the case of chemical castration, ongoing regular injections of anti-androgens are required. Chemical castration does not actually remove the testicles or ovaries of the subject,  nor is it a form of sterilization.
Chemical castration seems to have a greater effect on bone density than physical castration. Humans commonly castrate domestic animals not intended for breeding. Domestic animals are usually castrated to avoid unwanted or uncontrolled reproduction ; to reduce or prevent other manifestations of sexual behaviour such as defending the herd from humans and other threats, or intra-herd aggression e.
Male horses are usually castrated gelded using emasculators , because stallions are rather aggressive and troublesome. The same applies to male mules , although they are sterile.
Male cattle are castrated to improve fattening and docility in feedlots or for use as oxen. Breeding individuals are kept entire and used for breeding: they may fetch higher prices when sold. Livestock may be castrated when used for food to increase growth or weight or both of individual male animals [ citation needed ] and because of the undesirable taste and odor of the meat from sexually mature males.
In domestic pigs the taint, called boar taint , is caused by androstenone and skatole concentrations stored in the fat tissues of the animal after sexual maturity. This is due to many breeds of pigs simply not having the heredity for the boar taint and the fact that pigs are normally slaughtered at a young market weight. In the case of pets, castration is usually called neutering , and is encouraged to prevent overpopulation of the community by unwanted animals, and to reduce certain diseases such as prostate disease and testicular cancer in male dogs oophorectomy in female pets is often called spaying.
Testicular cancer is rare in dogs, and also prostate problems are somewhat common in castrated male dogs when they get older. Methods of veterinary castration include instant surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool or emasculators to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological injections and implants and immunological techniques to inoculate the animal against his own sexual hormones.
Certain animals, like horses and swine , are usually surgically treated with a scrotal castration which can be done with the animal standing while sedated and after local anesthetic has been applied , while others, like dogs and cats, are anesthetised and recumbent when surgically castrated with a pre-scrotal incision in the case of dogs, or a pre-scrotal or scrotal incision used for cats. Castration of cattle has historically been done without pain medications.
All methods of castration cause pain and distress, which can be minimized by castrating as early as possible, preferably within the first week of life. The Canadian Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle requires that, as of , calves older than six months be castrated using pain control. In veterinary practice an "open" castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured.
A "closed" castration refers to when the procedure is performed so that the inguinal tunic is sutured together after incision. Some parasitic nematodes chemically castrate their hosts. For example, Microphallus pseudopygmaeus chemically castrates its host, the snail Onoba aculeus , and causes it to grow larger than normal.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Involuntary castration. Surgical or chemical action that removes use of testicles. This article is about the practice as applied to humans. For livestock, see Neutering. Not to be confused with Penis removal or Emasculation. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main article: Chemical castration. See also: Neutering and Veterinary sterilization surgery. Main article: Parasitic castration. Menopause Int. Retrieved 5 February ABC News". Royal imagery in medieval Georgia. University Park, Pa. Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 21 March Transexualidades: Otras Miradas Posibles.
Chronological handbook of the history of China: a manuscript left by the late Rev. Ernst Faber. Retrieved 11 January China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. Cyclopaedia of political science, political economy, and of the political history of the United States, Volume 1.
Rand, McNally. Children in slavery through the ages. Ohio University Press. The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. Retrieved 28 June China of the Chinese. Charles Scribner's Sons.
Qin Shihuang. The early Chinese empires: Qin and Han. Harvard University Press. Osiris, Volume Saint Catherine Press. The History of China. The Rosen Publishing Group. Women in traditional Chinese theater: the heroine's play. University Press of America. Indiana University Press. Cambridge University Press. Research for this project was facilitated by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
Although the link is to a forum, the paper is posted in its full length there since it is not available online as it was never published. The following links are to papers and articles where the original paper by Jennifer W. Jay was referenced in the bibliography 5. Jennifer W. Archived from the original PDF on 21 October Retrieved 6 September CS1 maint: archived copy as title link  Jennifer, W. Not published. Archived from the original on 9 October Archived from the original on 12 October Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 9 January Cooper The geography of genocide.
New Orient, Volumes 1—3. Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies. Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection. In the footsteps of Genghis Khan. University of Hawaii Press.
Retrieved 12 May Appleton and Company. Hague New York: G.
Castration - Wikipedia
Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Some healthy males voluntarily seek castration without a recognized medical need. There are currently no standards of care for these individuals, which cause many of them to obtain surgery outside of a licensed medical setting.
We seek to understand who performs these surgeries. This study aims to characterize individuals who perform or assist in genital ablations outside of the healthcare system. Next we compared the cutters with the voluntary eunuchs. This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others.
Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med ;— There are men who seek and obtain genital ablations outside proper medical facilities for reasons other than medical necessity, such as testicular or metastatic prostate cancer 1 - 5. There are others who are driven to genital ablation from psychological distress and may have a diagnosis of xenomelia or Body Integrity Identity Disorder, which is not associated with a gender dysphoria 6 - 8.
Some men have socially challenging paraphilic interests and seek castration as a means of libido control. There are also individuals who desire castration because they do not feel comfortable identifying as female or male and prefer a gender identity outside the gender binary currently recognized in the contemporary western world 1 , 9 - Individuals who wish to be emasculated but do not identify as female have few options for medical assistance.
As a result, these individuals are unable to find appropriate medical care and may seek services outside of the medical community for their genital surgeries 2 , 3 , In the present study, we attempt to characterize individuals who perform or assist in genital ablations that occur outside of the healthcare system. In the eunuch. In , we posted a request for survey respondents on the eunuch. There were just over 3, respondents and close to individuals who reported having assisted in human castrations outside the medical framework.
Among the other respondents, there were individuals who had already been either chemically or physically castrated, or who expressed an interest in the subject with or without any expressed desire to become castrated. Although voluntary eunuchs have received some previous research attention, there are no studies that profile the unlicensed providers of human castration 1 - 3 , Individuals, who perform surgeries without a license, put themselves at serious legal risk … in addition to putting their clients at great physical risk.
In striving to characterize the cutters, we hope to better inform healthcare providers about this population so that they can identify individuals attracted to the activity and intercede appropriately. In characterizing the cutters, we aim to inform healthcare providers of their existence. We wish to help profile individuals, who may be at high risk of illegal activities and physical injury to themselves and others. In order to characterize the population, we define cutters as any respondents, castrated or not, who indicated that they had assisted in the castration of another person.
We compared the cutters with other subgroups within our larger surveyed population. First, we compared them with noncutters in our larger population of online survey respondents. This included all individuals who had expressed an interest in castration independent of whether or not they have been chemically or physically castrated but who had not participated in the castration of others.
As many of the cutters were themselves castrated, we divided this physically castrated group into eunuch cutters and eunuch noncutters for a third comparison. Illustration of subgroups used for each of our three statistical comparisons. The overall sample size of all comparisons, following removal of the biological females, underage and fraudulent responses is 2, All participants provided informed consent consistent with review board approval from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Some members wrote favorable comments on the site after completing the survey, which aided recruitment. No compensation was provided for participation. Participants were anonymous and were not required to answer all of the survey questions, resulting in slight differences in the number of responses to each question. There were 3, individuals who responded to the survey.
Because Eunuch. We deleted 38 responses from individuals claiming to be under the age of To screen out fraudulent responses, we deleted all submissions with inconsistencies e. In order to reduce the chances of receiving multiple submissions from a single individual, we only accepted a single submission from any one IP address. Responses were excluded if two of the three reviewers doubted their authenticity. We eliminated an additional 28 responses as possibly fraudulent. Being male was not a requirement to complete the survey; however, we excluded these women from our analyses, as there were too few women respondents to analyze as a separate group.
It is noteworthy that some women perform underground castration. The survey contained questions pertaining to: i general demographic information e. Of the 2, individuals in our core sample, reported that they had been physically castrated and were eunuchs, and 98 reported an involvement in performing human castration.
The majority of respondents There were a higher proportion of cutters at both the upper and lower ends of the education scale when compared with noncutters. In all of the parameters we measured, there were no statistically significant differences between all cutters and all those who had been physically castrated.
However, in comparing specifically cutters and noncutters within the greater community of the physically castrated, significant differences emerged. These are addressed below. The physically castrated cutters and noncutters did differ on a few demographic variables.
No differences were found between the two groups on their concerns about committing sexually inappropriate behaviour, or whether this concern was their motivation for seeking castration. These included: i a history of childhood abuse, ii being threatened as a child with genital mutilation, iii being raised in a devoutly Christian home, iv having witnessed or participated in physical castration s of animals, and v homosexuality or bisexuality.
We have identified these to also be risk factors for individuals participating in nonmedical genital ablations, i. As many of the cutters are themselves castrated, it is not surprising that the risk factors for cutters overlap with those for becoming physically castrated. It is unclear how influential these risk factors are in terms of promoting a desire to castrate others.
Unfortunately, there are no prevalence rates for how many individuals in society at large have witnessed animal castrations as a point of comparison. Nearly one quarter of both the cutters and the physically castrated said that they had been threatened with genital mutilation as children. Several of our participants reported that their mothers had held a knife or scissors to their penis and threatened to cut it off after finding them masturbating.
One respondent wrote a long account of being held by his father while his uncle pulled down his pants, held a knife to his scrotum, and offered to castrate him just like the pigs he had been watching them castrate. Children raised in devoutly religious homes are often taught that sexual activities for pleasure, such as masturbation, or certain sexual orientations and partnerships, such as homosexuality, are sinful.
As children threatened with genital mutilation, they may have come to believe that castration is a method to control undesirable sexual thoughts and activities. These risk factors may synergistically lead to a desire for castration. However, it is less obvious how they contribute to a desire to castrate others, as significant differences in these variables were not seen between the cutters and the physically castrated subgroup. Nor did we ask about the number of castrations the cutter had participated in.
Without such additional data, it is impossible to tell if these are contradictory risk factors i. Many of the significant differences that we found between cutters and noncutters are no longer significant when we compare cutters with noncutter eunuchs. It appears that the risk factors for becoming a cutter are essentially risk factors for obtaining castration rather than performing it. Similarly, they suggest that physically castrated cutters are a distinguishable group within the population of cutters.
One notable difference in the physically castrated subgroup of cutters relates to who performed their castrations. This difference may be the result of the different motivations for seeking castration, i. This may suggest a greater interest in body modification. In the overall comparison of all cutters vs. However, there is no difference between the two groups in whether their concern about committing an inappropriate behavior increased their interest in castration. Looking only at the significant differences, the greatest proportional difference between cutters and noncutters are in: i being physically castrated themselves, ii fantasizing about castrating others, and iii witnessing animal castrations—with the cutters reporting larger proportions for all three.
In sum, there may be no singular, invariant psychological profile of the cutter, who is himself castrated. However, the general picture that emerges, as noted above, is of someone who both sought out injury for himself and is willing to injure others.
There were several limitations to the study. First, in order to recruit a sufficient sample size an anonymous survey was used, and thus the veracity of responses could not be monitored. In addition, we could not have a control group comprised of individuals without an interest in castration, as all members of the Eunuch Archive website expressed some interest in this topic. To assess risk factors, participants were asked questions about their childhood and past experiences.
Therefore, many questions relied on participants' retrospection. That information may help identify the strength of the association between certain risk factors and participants involvement in illegal surgeries. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the motivating factors for cutters, a survey that specifically targets the cutters would need to be undertaken.
Future research should also assess comorbid disorders, such as Borderline Personality Disorder, that may share some common features with extreme castration ideations. Inflicting trauma or permanent injury on a nonconsenting person is a crime. However, the morality and legality of someone allowing himself to be permanently injured raises the question of whether full consent can be given in such a scenario.
According to American criminal law, the consent to bodily harm is not a valid defense against a charge of battery; however, this legal principle has sparked controversy As such, to remove the risk associated with nonmedical surgeries, some have argued for the medical community to provide amputations of healthy limbs for individuals experiencing extreme xenomelia or body integrity identity disorder see discussion in 18 - Some now inject toxins directly into the testicles in order to produce sufficient damage that a surgeon will perform an orchiectomy for damage control As with castrations for sexual reassignment, we favor standards of care for males with extreme castration ideations i.
However, we do stress that the treatment of these individuals and the decision whether to perform the procedure should lie with the discretion and clinical judgment of treating physicians. Healthcare professionals must take individuals who disclose castration fantasies seriously, particularly if risk factors e. Our research helps to characterize individuals who perform underground genital ablations. Few individuals have all these risk factors, and we cannot comment on which risk factors are dominant in the development of extreme castration ideations.
Unfortunately, individuals with a collection of these risk factors seldom present to their family doctors, psychiatrists, or other healthcare providers.