He discovered that she was an amateur artist and taught her about perspective. At other brothels, however, she saw D. Matisse, clad in a white lab-coat over a vest, tie, and dress pants, identifies himself with the male professions of doctor, bourgeois businessman, and artist. What a lesson received To tell the truth, these woodcuts were mediocre reproductions and yet I Mistress matisse s journal not experience the same emotion when I saw the originals. My brain and my reason appear to be ephemeral and of doubtful reality. Hence, he did not express them by random conversation, as one might imagine. Such thoughts as 'Colours must Mistress matisse s journal thought, dreamed, imagined', 26 or 'I believe neither in what I see nor in what I touch, I believe only in what I feel. In "The bouquet" he evokes the newness of freshly picked flowers from a garden but cautions against using metaphors from the past, "reminisces of long dead bouquets" Pants padded knees view these flowers.
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Although Matisse is century and is the subject of one of the largest literatures in modern art, and although he made public statements about his art for nearly half a century, his writings have been given has been little attention.
Although Matisse is century and is the subject of one of the largest literatures in modern art, and although he made public statements about his art for nearly half a century, his writings have been given has been little attention.
Only one very limited collection has appeared, in German, and there as yet no collection in French or in English see the Bibliography, below. In a certain sense the writings of artists are as much a part of the artistic tradition as the body of works which form that tradition.
In the course of writing this book, I have benefited from the kind co-operation of many and individuals. John Neff, Mr. Pierre Schneider, Mr. Jack Cowart for kindly institutions. I should also like to express my thanks to my colleague Professor John L.
Ward, with whom have shared many hours of fruitful and enjoyable discussion, and to Professor William G. Wagner, Director of the Bureau of Research, College of Architecture and Fine Arts, University of Florida, for a grant which greatly helped to facilitate the completion of the.
To Professor Eugene E. Grissom, Chairman of the Art Department, University of Florida, should like to offer my warmest thanks for his constant understanding, co-operation, encouragement, and friendship; and I should also like to thank Dr. Laurie Schneider Adams for her timely and important assistance with many of the translations. Finally, I should like to acknowledge my deep gratitude to Miss Bonnie S.
Burnham for I. After attending the Lycee in St. Quentin, he spent a year in Paris preparing for his law exams, which he passed in August At this time it seems that Matisse was not particularly interested in art or painting, and while in Paris did not even visit the Louvre. After an attack of appendicitis in , he began to copy colour prints with a box of paints given to him to while away the time of his convalescence.
He seems to have obtained his first ideas on painting from a popular, rather dry treatise by Goupil. He began to become intensely interested in art, and finally decided to go to the ficole Quentin-Latour where he could further his studies; abandoning law, he went on to Paris in , where he worked briefly under Bouguereau and Ferrier. At this time, Matisse also began a series of copies at the Louvre and in , he exhibited at the Salon de la Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, and two paintings of his were purchased, one by the State.
In the summer of , he travelled to Brittany and painted outdoors with Emile Wery. In , he completed La desserte Figure 5 , which was exhibited at the Salon de la Nationale of that year. Although the work was in a relatively conservative Impressionistic style, it met with disapproval from the conservatives of the Academy who were still fighting the battle against Impressionism. In January , Matisse married and, upon the advice of Pissarro, honeymooned in London where he studied especially the paintings of Turner.
This was followed by a trip to Corsica and to the south of France where he mainly painted landscapes direct from nature, and occasionally some interiors, such as the Chambre a Ajaccio. In the same year, he bought from Ambroise Vollard, Cezanne's Trots Baigneuses Figure 9 , which he could ill afford but which he kept until , despite his severe financial problems at the turn of the century.
This painting was to have a tremendous and far-reaching influence on his thought and work. That same year Matisse also acquired a bust by Rodin and a painting by Gauguin, Head of a Boy, in exchange for one of his own canvases, and a drawing by Van Gogh.
At this time Matisse also began to study sculpture at night. In Matisse, in dire straits, took a job painting decorations in the Grand-Palais for the Exposition Universelle of , an experience to which later he would frequently refer. The early years of the century were dark ones for Matisse, marked by extreme poverty and illness, because of which he was obliged to be separated from his two sons, who were sent to live with relatives. In , he exhibited two paintings at the Salon d'Automne, and in June , had his first one-man show at Vollard's gallery, the catalogue preface to which was written by.
This painting was in many ways the culmination of his neo-Impressionist experiment. This year was marked by the start of a buying public for his works; it was the year of the first purchase by the Steins Gertrude, Leo, Michael, and Sarah , and of support from Marcel Sembat.
The summer of Matisse spent at Collioure, where Derain came to join him. In the same summer, he became friendly with Maillol and visited the collection of Gauguin's South Sea pictures which were in the custody of Daniel Monfreid, a friend of Maillol. The painting was completed before the Salon des Independants which opened on 20 March , and, because of its size and brilliance of colour, it created a furore.
This animosity was felt not only among critics and academic painters but even extended to Paul Signac, who was at that time the vice-president of the Independants, and who resented Matisse's disavowal of neo-Impressionism. Matisse's second one-man show at the Galerie Druet, and of his trip to Biskra, and the subsequent Nu Bleu of Figure In Matisse withdrew from his Fauve milieu, and that summer travelled to Italy where he especially admired Giotto and the Sienese primitives.
Early in , at the suggestion of Sarah Stein and Hans Purrmann, Matisse began a painting class in his studio at the Couvent des Oiseaux, 56 rue de Sevres. The school closed in 1. The year was particularly important for Matisse's reputation since it marked his first shows outside of France the first Matisse canvas exhibited abroad was at the New Gallery, London, in January; later that year, he exhibited in the United States at Stieglitz's '' Gallery, showed in Russia at the Golden Fleece Salon in Moscow, and in Berlin, at the Cas.
George Blumenthal, wife. In Matisse signed his first contract with the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery and took a house at Issy-les-Moulineaux, where he would later paint many of his major works. In 19 10 he. He also travelled to Munich to visit the exhibition of Islamic art, which made a deep and lasting impression on him, and wintered in Andalusia. He returned to France early the next year, and worked at Issy-leshibited two large paintings,.
Moulineaux until summer, when he travelled to Collioure again. In 1 he began to develop a complex and extremely rich vocabulary of space and form. In the autumn, at the invitation of his patron, Sergei Shchukin, he went to Moscow, where he studied icons, and was evidently quite impressed with the foreignness of Russia.
Tangier, from whence he returned in the spring of Matisse left for Morocco again before the end of the year, and met Camoin, Marquet, and James Morrice in Tangier, returning to Paris in mid-April for the exhibition of his Moroccan paintings, sculpture, and drawings at Bernheim-Jeune, and spending the summer at Issy-les-Moulineaux.
In 19 13 Matisse exleft for. Michel in Paris, where he had previously lived from to Matisse's retrospective exhibition at the Gurlitt Gallery, Berlin, opened in July 19 14 and closed at the outbreak of the First World War. He returned to Issy-les-Moulineaux in late spring of 19 17, was at Issy that summer and worked in Paris in the autumn.
On 31 December 19 17, he visited Renoir for the first time, at Cagnes. In , Matisse also renewed his contract with Bernheim-Jeune, on terms which were much better than those of his earlier contract. In 19 18, he showed some of his paintings to Renoir, to whom he now paid frequent visits, and also visited Bonnard at Antibes.
He returned to Paris in September, but later in the autumn came back to Nice and took rooms in the Hotel de la Mediterranee on the Promenade des Anglais. This was the real beginning of his so-called Nice period, marked by a return to small studies done out of doors directly from nature. In the spring of 19 19, Matisse had another exhibition at Bernheim-Jeune, and his first one-man show in London at the Leicester Galleries.
In that year Diaghilev suggested that Matisse design the decor and costumes for the ballet Le Chant du Rossignol, the choreography for which was by Massine and the music by Stravinsky; in , Rossignol was performed at the Paris Opera by the Ballets Russes.
During the summer, Matisse painted at Etretat and had an exhibition of his Etretat and Nice paintings, with some early works, including his first and second paintings painted in , at Bernheim-Jeune. He had spent the summer painting at Etretat, and the autumn in an apartment on the Place Charles-Felix, in the old part of Nice. In the two major Russian collections of Matisse's works, those of Shchukin and Morosov, which had been confiscated during the Revolution, were combined in the Museum of Modern Western Art in Moscow.
In Matisse exhibited in New York at the Brummer Galleries, and had a large retrospective exhibition organized by Leo Swane in Copenhagen, which then toured Scandinavia. In , Matisse exhibited at the Valentine Gallery in New York, an exhibition arranged by his son, Pierre, and was awarded first prize at the Carnegie International Exhibition for his Compotier etfleurs, , a relatively conservative choice by the Carnegie jury.
For years Matisse had dreamed of travelling to the South Seas, and in March , at a moment of crisis in his life and art, he began his journey by way of New York and San Francisco. While in Tahiti, he did no painting. Instead, as he wrote to Escholier, T lived there three months,.
In the autumn of , he was invited to serve on the jury of the Carnegie International Exhibition, and after this, returned to New York, where he visited the homes of many collectors of his paintings. In the meantime, Dr. Albert C. Barnes, the important American collector, who had invited him to visit the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Pennsylvania, proposed a commission for a mural decoration for the Foundation, on the subject of the dance.
Matisse returned to France, but returned to Merion in late December to plan for the commission, which he began later in an abandoned film studio in Nice. This show had been preceded by an important show in Berlin at the Thannhauser Gallery in the late winter of , and by a large show which opened at the Georges Petit Galleries in Paris in 1, composed in the main of pictures from the Nice period, Thus the years 1 brought to fruition many of Matisse's personal ambitions and solidified his already growing international reputation.
In Matisse completed the Barnes Mural, only to find that the wall space had been measured incorrectly; he then began a second version, which was eventually installed in to the satisfaction of both Barnes and Matisse. In October of , the Skira edition of Poesies de Stephane Mallarme, Matisse's first illustrated book, was published. In Massine asked Matisse to design sets and costumes for Rouge et Noir, a ballet with music by Shostakovitch and choreography by Massine. His painting at this period had begun to take on a new vigour and boldness.
In Matisse moved to Cimiez, to the former Hotel Regina, overlooking Nice, where he designed set and costumes for the ballet Rouge et Noir which was produced in the following year by the Ballets. Russes de Monte Carlo. In , after the fall of Paris, Matisse secured a Brazilian visa and passage for Rio de Janeiro, but he changed his mind.
It seemed to me as if I would be deserting. If everyone who has any value leaves France, what remains of France? As he put it to Pierre Matisse, T have to invent and that takes great effort for which I must have something in reserve. Perhaps I would be better off somewhere else, freer, less weighed down.
In March , Matisse was operated on for an intestinal occlusion at Lyons, and he returned to Nice in May. The operation and ensuing illness left him seriously affected; damage to the muscular wall of one side of the abdomen caused him permanent weakness so that he was able to hold himself erect only for limited periods of time.
While he was convalescing, he began to work once again, painting and drawing in bed. At this time he also. In the early summer of he went to Paris, where, for the first time since , he had a retrospective exhibition of thirty-seven paintings at the Salon d'Automne.
The same year, an exhibition of paintings by Picasso and Matisse was given at the Victoria and. New York.
Mistress matisse s journal.
Henri Matisse - Wikipedia
Elaine de Kooning, Portraiture, and the Politics of Sexuality. For example, in Fairfield Porter 1 , , de Kooning pushes the seated faceless figure to the foreground, confronting the viewer with his open-legged stance; an invitation to visually consume his sexualized body Figure 1.
What is the viewer to think of de Kooning, a woman artist, who was a central figure within the male-dominated Abstract Expressionist movement, creating a sexually suggestive portrait of her friend and fellow painter Fairfield Porter? Perhaps de Kooning's remark in makes it perfectly clear what we, the viewers, are to think: " And I thought, men always painted the opposite sex, and I wanted to paint men as sex objects" Gibson, But, her innovative portraits of men are a revelation to many because de Kooning's creative contributions have been largely overlooked in the general texts on Abstract Expressionism.
However, an analysis of de Kooning's portraits of men expands the revisionist literature on Abstract Expressionism because her depiction of male sexuality calls into question issues of gender, power, and sexuality that inform both psychoanalytic and modernist discourses. She was not, however, attempting to reverse the power dynamic by placing men in the western tradition of the passive reclining female pose, nor was she dismantling the anonymous male body by employing an Abstract Expressionist style.
Rather she records her clothed male friends and lovers in an upright position with their legs spread apart, acknowledging and relishing her active role in depicting this socially accepted pose that asserts male sexual power, a pose that would not have been deemed appropriate for a "feminine" woman in the s to highlight.
Second, the gender politics of portraiture and the gaze will be addressed, along with an investigation of the social and psychoanalytic constructions of male and female sexuality in the late s through the s. Third, I will analyze how de Kooning's portraits emphasize male sexuality and the intimate relationship between artist and sitter.
And finally, by first investigating the power dynamics of the male artist's studio within the context of a phallocentric view of modernism; and then contrasting Picasso's and Matisse's attitudes toward portraiture with de Kooning's approach, I will reveal how her portraits both transgress and uphold gender stereotypes.
These two artists have come to represent this mid-century art movement both in terms of their work and personalities. This photograph by Arnold Newman has become the quintessential image of an Abstract Expressionist--a tough, self-assured male artist whose body language and dangling cigarette reveal his defiance See Gibson, This photograph and many others influenced mainstream America's perceptions of Pollock and his fellow "wild ones," as Time magazine dubbed them in In fact, this image continues to inform our perceptions of these male artists evidenced by Pollock's friend Bud Hopkins's remark in that, "He [Pollock] was the great American painter.
If you conceive of such a person, first of all, he has to be a real American, not a transplanted European. And he should have the big macho American virtues--he should be rough-and-tumble American--taciturn, ideally--and if he is a cowboy, so much the better" Naifeh and Smith, Hopkins's statement and Newman's photograph propagate the myth that only macho men created large "heroic" Abstract Expressionist paintings at mid-century.
In fact, there were many female painters who were associated with this artistic milieu. Elaine de Kooning is a prime example as she painted in a fluid, Abstract Expressionist style and was a central figure within the "Downtown" group of artists living on or near East Tenth Street in Manhattan See Stahr, Instead of confronting the viewer with a smug look while leaning back against a painting, de Kooning stands in a three-quarters pose, glancing off to the side, with a coy expression.
While Pollock's crossed arms connote defiance, de Kooning's connote a protectiveness and thus, vulnerability. De Kooning's 40's style hairdo, wide averted eyes, and dark, lipstick-lined lips are reminiscent of a glamorous forties film star. A comparison of these two photographs reveals the different gendered personas these two artists projected for the camera. However, the wrinkled artist's smock that de Kooning wears slightly disrupts her "feminine" movie star persona and, thus, announces her affiliation with her fellow artists.
Many of the male "Downtown" Abstract Expressionists donned jeans and denim shirts because they identified with the proletariat. These artists wanted to create revolutionary American art and, as Griselda Pollock has noted, the Americanized proletariat was synonymous with Revolution Pollock and Orton, As a female artist, de Kooning dons a crumpled, denim-looking artist's smock to reveal her alliance with this particular group of artists.
Additionally, the prominently placed hand with the eerie white glow that emanates from it, announces that her profession is dependent upon the work she creates with her hands.
This photograph suggests that de Kooning is both aligned with the "proletariat" artist and the glamorous Hollywood starlet. She simultaneously embodies "feminine" and "masculine" attributes, something that was pathologized in the s and s by many distinguished psychoanalysts.
However, it was precisely de Kooning's ability to move in and out of these "feminine" and "masculine" personas that ensured her central position within this male-dominated group of artists. The painter Pat Passlof said that the Club's charter excluded Communists, homosexuals, and women because as the Club organizer Philip Pavia informed her: "You know those are the three groups that take over" Interview with the author.
From interviews I conducted with various artists, it is clear that de Kooning was accepted into this "boys' club" because she was not perceived as a threat as she adopted a tough persona and at the same time did not deny her "femininity.
While Gruen hypothesizes that Mitchell and Hartigan seemed "affronted and enraged by their femininity," many psychoanalysts like Helene Deutsch would probably theorize that these women were, in fact, suffering from a masculinity complex. Deutsch writes: "In our view, the masculinity complex is characterized by the predominance of active and aggressive tendencies that lead to conflicts with the woman's environment and above all with the remaining feminine world" Deutsch goes on to clarify that a woman's masculinity is the result of an abundance of "aggressive forces" that were not properly inhibited in her psychological development.
Passlof remembers it this way: "It was a very macho world. They put on airs you know. Every other word was 'fuck' and 'shit' and I came from that generation, so I picked it up. It was part of a masculine expression The artist Dorothy Dehner commented upon the airs that the male artists put on: "There had never been a great American art before.
In fact art had always been regarded as somewhat sissified in this country. By God, these men were not going to be sissies" Rubenstein, The painter Grace Hartigan confirms Dehner's perspective and adds:. As a result, many female artists also adopted the macho, workman-style as part of their identities.
Although de Kooning did not comment upon the gender politics involved in becoming a part of this particular group of artists, she did make a statement about her childhood and teen years that provides some insight into her personality. Years later this seems to have been her strategy as well. De Kooning's acceptance by her male peers reveals the significant position she held within this exclusive group. First, she refused to adhere to the influential critic Clement Greenberg's dogmatic position that representational art was inferior to nonrepresentational art.
De Kooning rejected this notion by continuing to paint representational work throughout her career. Second, she pursued portraiture even though she knew quite well that it was not going to bring her financial success or notoriety on an institutional level in the s. In fact, she once justified her choice to pursue this genre precisely because it was deemed unfashionable Taylor, Third, she painted primarily male figures and chose a style of painting that the critics associated with male bravado.
Fourth, from approximately the artist painted a series of faceless seated portraits of men, forcing the viewer to acknowledge the importance of gesture and body language as a marker of identity and conveyor of sexuality. In doing so, de Kooning challenged the traditional concept that portraiture captures a likeness of the sitter's facial features. Also, female portraitists were not thought to require the rigorous academic training that included the study of anatomy and antique models.
De Kooning, on the other hand, looked to her husband, male friends, and lovers as the main subject for her portraits and thus, her vision of "masculinity" in the s asserts a female gaze. For example, in Self-Portrait 1 , c. This early self-portrait affirms that de Kooning prized her refined ocular sensibility which allowed her to quickly discern the physical stance or facial expression that best captured her sitter's personality or mood.
By the early s, she utilized this intense artistic gaze to create a new style of portraiture that often emphasized male sexuality. Feminist scholars such as Carol Duncan, Griselda Pollock, and Whitney Chadwick have pointed out that modern art is filled with images of female sexuality that raise issues concerning male power and domination. Questions surrounding the male gaze arose in the early s as feminist scholars investigated how the male privilege of looking is bound up with ideological, social, and political power.
As Luce Irigaray argues: "Investment in the look is not as privileged in women as in men What happens when the female gaze is privileged? Does de Kooning's penetrating creative vision objectify her male sitter, merely record impressions of him, or provide a new vision of the male figure? Clearly, the power dynamics are different due to the lack of political and social status that women held in the s and therefore, within this patriarchal system, de Kooning could not merely reverse roles and objectify her male sitters.
The conflicting attitudes stemmed, in part, from the change over into a postwar society whereby women were supposed to leave their wartime jobs e. Many psychoanalysts and sociologists speculated that the new-found autonomy for women during the war might make them resistant to domesticity.
Likewise, as Brett Harvey states: "There was also a great deal of concern about the potential for uncontrolled sexuality A strong family unit based on clearly defined sex roles seemed to be the solution" This concern intensified when Dr. Alfred C. By the mid-fifties, it was clear that the autonomy some middle-class women felt during the war had had an impact upon their perceived roles within marriage.
Despite such revelations of women's "changing roles in modern marriage" and sexual independence, the popular media continued to promote limited images of female sexuality. While Marilyn Monroe was oozing on the screen with "innocent" sensuality, Doris Day was proudly promoting her virginity. Many prominent psychoanalysts argued, based on a biological deterministic model, that woman is naturally passive because she possesses a vagina, a "completely passive, receptive organ," whereas man is naturally active because he possesses a penis, an "active agent" Deutsch, Farnham and Lundberg write: " The less a woman's desire to have children and the greater her desire to emulate the male in seeking a sense of personal value by objective exploit, the less will be her enjoyment of the sex act and the greater her general neuroticism" De Kooning's artistic pursuits and her "lack" of children indicate, according to Farnham and Lundberg, that she was neurotic and unable to enjoy sex.
However, the de Koonings had an open marriage and Elaine seemed to revel in her sexual freedom. In fact, de Kooning's seemingly comfortable attitude toward her active sexual life should not be viewed as unhealthy, but as an important component of her creative contributions to the genre of portraiture because many of her portraits of men express her ease with the men's and her own sexuality.
Instead she used her piercing and perceptive eyes to observe and record the male figure. Michel Sonnebend 1 , is a case in point Figure 5. Here de Kooning effectively uses an Abstract Expressionist style to create a new type of portrait because the rhythm and energy of the paint's swirls and dashes comprise the visual language she employs to capture the stance, gesture, and expression of the sitter.
Instead of revealing the psyche of her sitter, as she did with some of her earlier non-Abstract Expressionist portraits, de Kooning uses color and the gestural handling of paint to emphasize Sonnebend's crotch and the male privilege of sitting in an open-legged position. As de Kooning stated: "Some men sit all closed up--legs crossed, arms folded across the chest.
Others are wide open. I was interested in the gesture of the body In an interview with Karl Fortress, de Kooning emphasizes how important it is for her sitters to feel relaxed so she can capture their body language. So what I generally do when I'm starting a portrait is just talk to people about other things. However, in the portrait of Sonnebend the head is only hinted at through the use of black lines toward the top of the composition, and the facial features are merely strokes of yellow and orange paint, because the focus is on the open-legged stance of Sonnebend, who appears to be sitting with his arms hanging over the sides of a chair.
The active white and gray brushstrokes of the crotch area give it a dynamism that the upper half of the body lacks. In this portrait, de Kooning is concerned with using the sensuous and dynamic handling of paint and color to highlight the sitter's body language and thus, sexuality. As de Kooning acknowledged: "You experience drawing in the mind--you are always outside of it--but color engulfs. In , her portrait of Al Lazar 2 reveals another faceless man sitting in a chair with his legs resting in an open position Figure 6.
Unlike Sonnebend, Lazar is not pushed up against the picture plane; instead, de Kooning provides a sense of place by including a phone and table in the right middleground and a footstool-like round red object with a black top in the left foreground. His right leg is open, with his out-turned inner thigh and knee facing the viewer.