Sexual identity is how one thinks of oneself in terms of to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted. Sexual identity has been described as a component of an individual's identity that reflects their sexual self-concept. The integration of the respective identity components e. Sexual identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation. Heterosexuality describes a pattern of attraction to persons of the opposite sex.
Journal of Homosexuality, 50, 49 LaFromboise et al. Internalized Biphobia Societal prejudice toward sexual minority Bicultural identity homosexual may be internalized by targets Internalized heterosexism or homoseexual homophobia h as Bichltural defined as the PAGE 24 24 self internalization of negative beliefs about sexual minority persons by sexual minority persons Meyer, ; ; Szymanski, G ay Lesbian Soc. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide Bicultural identity homosexual copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun"the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual LGB sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. It homosexyal reported that some women who identify as unlabeled did so because they are unable or uncertain about the types of relationships they will have in the future.
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Asian American complete 4. Bicultural identity homosexual example, with standardized testing, African American students in low-income areas often do worse on a given Bicultural identity homosexual due to the expectations for them to do worse. In the first, bicultural individuals perceive their dual cultural identities as compatible and complementary, whereas in the second, bicultural individuals describe them as oppositional and contradictory. A bicultural framework often does not take into account multiple identities, such as socioeconomic status, dis ability status, sexual orientation, and gender. The presence of culture-specific peers can elicit culture-specific values. Bicultural individuals high on BII describe their two cultural identities as compatible i. There are a number of biculturalism scales Personnel adult sex pic to measure homoesxual unidimensionally, including. InRaymond Buriel and Delia S. What does bicultural identity mean? Low BII bicultural individuals have difficulties in incorporating both cultures into a cohesive identity and tend to see Biculturap cultures as highly dissimilar. These descriptions apply to iddentity Bicultural identity homosexual population of people within the United States who have affiliations with other countries and cultures e. Hispanic Americans are very racially diverse. It would be hard to define bilingual without speaking also to bicultural. Journal of Homozexual Psychology —
- Central to the discussion of biculturalism is the construct of culture.
- Bicultural identity is the condition of being oneself regarding the combination of two cultures.
Carl A. In an effort to sensitize service providers to bicultural socialization, a small but growing literature has surfaced in which theories are proposed explaining the socialization process, cultural identification, and evolution of self-concept for those functioning in two cultures. In this article, the authors examine the extent to which previously developed explanatory theories of cultural and ethnic identity and bicultural socialization apply to the experience of sexual minorities, and offer a conceptual framework for adequately assessing the experience of homosexual clientele.
The multifaceted nature of the practitioner's role is discussed, and gender-sensitive practice methods are given that may assist sexual minorities in developing optimum functioning. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Biculturality and Homosexuality Carl A. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Helen Land. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions.
Abstract In an effort to sensitize service providers to bicultural socialization, a small but growing literature has surfaced in which theories are proposed explaining the socialization process, cultural identification, and evolution of self-concept for those functioning in two cultures. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all figures.
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Whereas biculturalism and ethnic identity can be seen as states of being, acculturation is a process. Thus, the process of becoming bicul-tural is often one that reverses the target culture in the acculturation process; that is, the birth culture often nondominant becomes the target culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology — There is much variability, however, in how bicultural individuals manage and experience these meaning systems. Low BII bicultural individuals have difficulties in incorporating both cultures into a cohesive identity and tend to see both cultures as highly dissimilar. Similarly, negative terminology has developed that is used to imply that racial and ethnic minorities may appear a certain way but have internally identified with and adopted values, norms, and behaviors of White U. Categories : Personality Cross-cultural psychology Identity Majority—minority relations Interculturalism Cross-cultural studies National identities Sociology of culture.
Bicultural identity homosexual. About the writer
It is rooted in Africa , and is a blend of sub-Saharan African and Sahelean cultures. Due to aspects of African American culture that were accentuated by the slavery period, African American culture is dynamic. Within the African American culture, race or physical differences led to mass murder, and violence against racial groups. This is what resulted in the American Dilemma. Thus, due to historical reasons, and because they are often stereotyped, African Americans have difficulty assimilating with their culture and American culture.
Census Bureau. Asian American complete 4. Asian Americans have had the highest educational attainment level and median household income of any racial demographic in the country and attain the highest median personal income overall, as of [update].
This may make it difficult for Asian Americans to assimilate easily into American culture. Hispanic Americans are very racially diverse. Hispanics constitute Hispanic Americans often are very religiously oriented and focus on family values and the importance of intergenerational connections.
The ability to speak Spanish is valued greatly within Hispanic culture, as it is greatly used during social gatherings and amongst extended family.
The Spanish language is a significant part of Hispanic culture, and because of the vast amount of racial differences within Hispanic Americans, the way in which Spanish is spoken within the different racial groups is often different.
This makes it not only difficult to assimilate into American culture but to often assimilate with the different races in Hispanic America.
Immigrants particularly find it difficult to assimilate both their cultural contexts. Immigrants need to reconcile both their current host cultures and their culture of origin, which is where they grew up. Immigrants culturally evolve through a process of adaptation and assimilation. Immigrants encounter a major upheaval by moving far away from home and sometimes may never find themselves connected to either culture. Immigrants face many stresses , which can raise their risk for substance abuse and other psychological stressors.
With immigrants, language barriers may also bring hardship in terms of communication with natives of their less dominant culture.
Immigrants may not adapt fully because of the language barriers holding them back from even simple conversation. Acculturation is the process in which a bicultural individual or immigrant adopts the social norms of the mainstream society. The cultural gap between immigrant parents and their children may widen due to acculturation because younger generations find it easier to adapt to the new culture.
Family relations may be strained due to this issue. They have strong commitments to family and have a dream for a better life. This in turns gives families a sense of purpose and connection and makes the family unit stronger.
Native customs such as holidays and religious affiliations may also support the family unit and promote unity all around. Individuals with bicultural identity face issues around stereotype threat. Others may be perceived negatively, or their judgments may in turn alter the way that one behaves in certain situations. For example, with standardized testing, African American students in low-income areas often do worse on a given test due to the expectations for them to do worse.
Stereotype threat is so powerful that it may extend on to different areas of life, such as the workplace. Stereotype threat makes it harder for individuals to integrate successfully with their peers if they feel judged or feel pressures to exceed in certain ways especially if their dual cultural roles may be in conflict with one another.
Thiese scenarios are contingent on an individual's success with acculturation strategies. A bicultural individual's integration into a workplace also depends on the cultural makeup of his or her team. A team can be categorized as culturally homogenous, culturally diverse, or possessing a cultural faultline. Caregivers also face a dilemma with their children who have bicultural identities; they want to instill pride in their children, but also must prepare their children for prejudice without making them feel inferior to other cultural groups.
For example, African-American parents must socialize their children in such a manner where they will be prepared to face discrimination in society, but they also must preserve their culture in such a way that makes them feel prideful. This dilemma that parents face makes it harder for individuals to feel comfortable within social groups and may minimize the different cultures that individuals surround themselves with. Academics within individuals with bicultural identity may also be aversely affected in terms of stereotype threat.
An individual may lose motivation in a scholastic setting due to the negative expectations placed on them. Attitudes may change within academics if a student feels as though he cannot do well due to societal constraints on his particular culture. Although this may discourage some, specific tests have been made in order to integrate culture within standardized testing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Biculturalism. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. In the first, bicultural individuals perceive their dual cultural identities as compatible and complementary, whereas in the second, bicultural individuals describe them as oppositional and contradictory. Clearly, being bicultural is not as simple as being on one or another end of a cultural spectrum. Biculturalism can involve feelings of pride, being special, being unique, and having a sense of community and history.
It can also include identity confusion, dual or multiple expectations, and value clashes. Bicultural individuals differ in how they subjectively organize their dual cultural orientations i. In fact, although individuals want to maintain positive ties with both cultures, certain psychosocial pressures and individual variables lead to significant variations in the process, meanings, and outcomes.
In spite of the challenges, however, many bicultural individuals succeed at developing a bicultural identity. There are two types of bicultural individuals identified in the literature.
In the first type, bicultural individuals identify with both cultures simultaneously but may do so at differing levels. They do not perceive their ethnic minority culture and the dominant cultures as being mutually exclusive or conflicting.
They integrate their cultures into their lives, are able to demonstrate competency in both cultures, and are able to switch behaviors depending on contextual demands. A second type of bicultural individual perceives the dominant and ethnic minority cultures as oppositional in orientation.
Although these individuals also identify with both cultures, they are acutely aware of the discrepancies in their cultures and see these discrepancies as a source of internal conflict. Thus, these individuals keep their two cultural identities separate and often report that it is easier to be from their minority culture or from the dominant culture but hard to be both at the same time.
For example, they may identify as being Korean or American as opposed to Korean American. They feel they have to choose one or the other because of the differing perspectives of their cultures. For many years, it was thought that living in two cultures has a negative impact on the development and lives of individuals. In fact, one common assumption has been that individuals who try to engage in two cultures experience identity confusion and even marginal-ity.
There are a number of colloquial expressions that highlight the negative perceptions of bicultural individuals. This term implies that because these individuals are U. It was thought that being born into or developing competence in one culture leads to the loss of identification with the other. Similarly, negative terminology has developed that is used to imply that racial and ethnic minorities may appear a certain way but have internally identified with and adopted values, norms, and behaviors of White U.
There are many definitions of ethnic identity, some of which put it in relation to other terms such as biculturalism and others that define ethnic identity independently.
Ethnic identity can be divided into two parts—an external ethnic identity and an internal ethnic identity, whereby external ethnic identity refers to observable social and cultural behaviors and internal ethnic identity includes cognitive, affective, and moral domains.
For ethnic minorities, ethnic pride, or a positive ethnic identity, can help individuals cope with the demands of the dominant culture. A number of models of ethnic identity development apply to various ethnic groups in the United States. The psychological literature has alluded to a connection between ethnic identity, biculturalism, and acculturation, and these terms are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably. Whereas biculturalism and ethnic identity can be seen as states of being, acculturation is a process.
Included in models of ethnic identity is the concept of ethnic belongingness. The feelings and perceptions that individuals have about their own ethnic group are also likely to impact the degree to which these individuals feel belongingness to their ethnic group.
The model suggests that it is possible for individuals to gain competence in two cultures without having to choose one culture over another or lose their original cultural identity. In opposition to the assumption that living in two cultures is confusing or problematic for individuals, biculturalism and the ability to develop and maintain competence in both cultures is actually psychologically beneficial to individuals. In turn, bicultural competence and second culture acquisition are facilitated by the presence of a strong personal identity.
It is important to note, however, that the acquisition of culture and achievement of bicultural competence tend to occur at varying rates for individuals. To navigate two cultures effectively, individuals need to acquire competence in six dimensions:. This model can be seen as applicable to immigrants and second-generation bicultural individuals, as well as interracial, interethnic, intercultural, and transracial individuals.
Some experts believe that the development of a bicultural identity occurs through acculturation. Research on bicultural individuals has focused predominantly on the process of acculturation. For many years, the assimilation model was the only acculturation model. Biculturalism is an important aspect of acculturation because the preexistence of a minority community can lead to the process in which individuals retain the culture of origin while also acculturating to the host culture.
Acculturation and biculturalism can be differentiated by recognizing that acculturation refers to a cultural shift in which elements of the majority culture progressively predominate, whereas biculturalism refers to a cultural orientation in which elements of both minority and majority cultures are increasingly found in equal proportions.
Were this same man to be considered bicultural, he would have equal skills, knowledge, and comfort in both American and Senegalese cultures so that he would not subvert one to learn the other.
Quantitative methods, primarily through use of scales, have been used to study these variables. Unidimensional and multidimensional models of biculturalism and acculturation have emerged. Unidimensional or unilinear bicultural models conceptualize acculturation along a single, linear continuum, with one end reflecting high adherence to the indigenous or ethnic minority culture and the other end reflecting high adherence to the dominant culture.
There are a number of biculturalism scales used to measure biculturalism unidimensionally, including. Critics of these unilinear models argue that they are unable to truly represent biculturalism, which includes adherence to both indigenous and host cultures. In these models, the bicultural identity is often seen as the optimal identity.
Navigating Identities: Subtle and Public Agency of Bicultural Gay Youth.
Sexual identity is how one thinks of oneself in terms of to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted. Sexual identity has been described as a component of an individual's identity that reflects their sexual self-concept.
The integration of the respective identity components e. Sexual identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation. Heterosexuality describes a pattern of attraction to persons of the opposite sex. Homosexuality describes a pattern of attraction to other persons of the same sex. Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity.
Pansexuality describes attraction towards people regardless of their sex or gender identity. Polysexuality has been defined as "encompassing or characterized by many different kinds of sexuality",  and as sexual attraction to many, but not all, genders.
Sapiosexuality describes attraction to the intelligence of another person. Unlabeled sexuality is when a individual chooses not to label their sexual identity. This identification could stem from one's uncertainty about their sexuality or their unwillingness to conform to a sexuality because they don't necessarily like labels, or they wish to feel free in their attractions instead of feeling forced into same, other, both, or all attractions because of their sexual identity.
Identifying as unlabeled could also be because of one's "unwillingness to accept their sexual minority status. It is reported that some women who identify as unlabeled did so because they are unable or uncertain about the types of relationships they will have in the future. Many people who feel attracted to members of their own sex come out at some point in their lives.
Coming out is described in three phases. The first phase is the phase of "knowing oneself," and the realization emerges that one is sexually and emotionally attracted to members of one's own sex. This is often described as an internal coming out and can occur in childhood or at puberty, but sometimes as late as age 40 or older. The second phase involves a decision to come out to others, e. At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society.
Sometimes they do not inform their own families. According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun , "the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual LGB sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups e. Some individuals with unwanted sexual attractions may choose to actively dis-identify with a sexual minority identity, which creates a different sexual orientation identity from their actual sexual orientation.
Sexual orientation identity, but not sexual orientation, can change through psychotherapy , support groups , and life events. An individual may come to accept an LGB identity, to develop a heterosexual identity, to reject an LGB identity while choosing to identify as ex-gay , or to refrain from specifying a sexual identity. Several models have been created to describe coming out as a process for gay and lesbian identity development e.
Dank, ; Cass, ; Coleman, ; Troiden, These historical models have taken a view of sexual identity formation as a sexual-minority process only. For example, some LGBT youth become aware of and accept their same-sex desires or gender identity at puberty in a way similar to which heterosexual teens become aware of their sexuality, i.
The Unifying Model of Sexual Identity Development is currently the only model that incorporates heterosexual identity development within its statuses to include compulsory heterosexuality, active exploration, diffusion, deepening and commitment to status, and synthesis. Contemporary models view sexual identity formation as a universal process, rather than a sexual minority one, in that it is not only sexual minorities that undergo sexual identity development, but heterosexual populations as well.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. How a person thinks of oneself with regard to romantic and sexual orientation and behaviour.
Not to be confused with sexual orientation or gender identity. See also: Coming out and Homosexuality and psychology. Clinical Social Work Journal. American Psychological Association. Retrieved February 3, Sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events. Sexual identity as a universal process In S. Schwartz, K. Vignoles Eds , Handbook of identity theory and research Vols 1 and 2 , pp. Processes of personal identity formation and evaluation.
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