An oxidation model is developed that describes Cu copper oxidation kinetics to CuO cupric oxide for applications in the air reactor of chemical looping combustion CLC systems. The model , which is based on the Wagner theory of oxidation , is developed by considering the fluxes of interstitial and vacancy defects in the cation sublattice of Cu2O cuprous oxide and CuO. Defects in the anion sublattice are a priori included in the model , however are subsequently found to be too small in concentration and diffuse too slowly to contribute significantly to the oxidation of Cu. The oxidation model presented here is capable of predicting Cu oxidation rates and relative thicknesses of the resulting Cu2O and CuO oxide layers as a function of the partial pressure of oxygen in the ambient and temperature. Experiments were performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer TGA at conditions relevant to air reactors of CLC systems to obtain data that was used to characterize parameters in the model.
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Trigg; Edmund Royal gmc sussex. Copper Facts and Properties. Transformation of lignin model compounds to N -substituted aromatics via Beckmann rearrangement. In terms of their coordination spheres, copper centres are 2-coordinated and the oxides are tetrahedral. ChemSusChem7 6 Oxidation model copper, This kind of corrosion is known as red plague. Torsten Rinesch, Carsten Bolm. Oxidation model copper thin layers of base oxidation can result in unacceptable signal loss. This is usually seen on aluminum doors and windows after heavy rainfall. Engineering metals and their alloys.
Electro-catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde on copper electrode in mM NaOH solution at different concentrations of formaldehyde was studied in the steady state polarization technique.
- Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu from Latin : cuprum and atomic number
- Copper I oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu 2 O.
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An oxidation model is developed that describes Cu copper oxidation kinetics to CuO cupric oxide for applications in the air reactor of chemical looping combustion CLC systems. The model , which is based on the Wagner theory of oxidation , is developed by considering the fluxes of interstitial and vacancy defects in the cation sublattice of Cu2O cuprous oxide and CuO.
Defects in the anion sublattice are a priori included in the model , however are subsequently found to be too small in concentration and diffuse too slowly to contribute significantly to the oxidation of Cu.
The oxidation model presented here is capable of predicting Cu oxidation rates and relative thicknesses of the resulting Cu2O and CuO oxide layers as a function of the partial pressure of oxygen in the ambient and temperature. Experiments were performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer TGA at conditions relevant to air reactors of CLC systems to obtain data that was used to characterize parameters in the model.
The gaseous environments contained 0. A sensitivity analysis was performed in order to assess the influence of defect diffusivities and formation energies as well as particle diameter and surface area on oxidation rates. Based on our understanding of defects and their role in Cu oxidation , insights regarding the design of copper particles for use in CLC have been made.
Assuming that oxidation is the rate-limiting process in CLC , the recirculation rate and copper loadings have also been estimated when CuO is used to oxidize a typical coal. Log In for instructions on accessing this content. Skip to main content.
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Views Read View source View history. Chemistry — An Asian Journal , 14 12 , Archived from the original PDF on 18 August Copper Wire Facts. Mix together these ingredients with a spoon and add flour to it until all ingredients are evenly distributed and a thick paste is formed. Prevent oxidation with a thin coat of virgin olive oil or lacquer.
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The Cu atoms arrange in a fcc sublattice, the O atoms in a bcc sublattice. One sublattice is shifted by a quarter of the body diagonal. The lowest excitons in Cu 2 O are extremely long lived; absorption lineshapes have been demonstrated with neV linewidths, which is the narrowest bulk exciton resonance ever observed. Another unusual feature of the ground state excitons is that all primary scattering mechanisms are known quantitatively.
It can be shown using Cu 2 O that the Kramers—Kronig relations do not apply to polaritons. Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment , a fungicide , and an anti fouling agent for marine paints. Rectifier diodes based on this material have been used industrially as early as , long before silicon became the standard. Copper I oxide is also responsible for the pink color in a positive Benedict's test. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cuprous oxide Dicopper oxide Cuprite Red copper oxide.
CAS Number. Interactive image Interactive image. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Solubility in water. Crystal structure. Std molar entropy S o PEL Permissible. IDLH Immediate danger. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements , 2nd ed.
Hanke, D. Ivanov, P. Littlewood, and H. Brandt, D. Sandfort, M. Bayer, H. Stolz, and N. Naka, Ultranarrow absorption and two-phonon excitation spectroscopy of Cu 2 O paraexcitons in a high magnetic field , Phys. Wolfe and A. Physical Review. Copper compounds. Cu 5 Si. Aphrodite Venus in Rome represented copper in mythology and alchemy because of its lustrous beauty and its ancient use in producing mirrors; Cyprus was sacred to the goddess.
The seven heavenly bodies known to the ancients were associated with the seven metals known in antiquity, and Venus was assigned to copper. Copper was first used in ancient Britain in about the 3rd or 2nd century BC. In North America, copper mining began with marginal workings by Native Americans.
Native copper is known to have been extracted from sites on Isle Royale with primitive stone tools between and Copper burial ornamentals from the 15th century have been uncovered, but the metal's commercial production did not start until the early 20th century.
The cultural role of copper has been important, particularly in currency. Romans in the 6th through 3rd centuries BC used copper lumps as money. The gates of the Temple of Jerusalem used Corinthian bronze treated with depletion gilding. It satisfied two thirds of Europe's copper consumption in the 17th century and helped fund many of Sweden's wars during that time. Copper is used in roofing,  currency, and for photographic technology known as the daguerreotype.
Copper was used in Renaissance sculpture, and was used to construct the Statue of Liberty ; copper continues to be used in construction of various types. Copper plating and copper sheathing were widely used to protect the under-water hulls of ships, a technique pioneered by the British Admiralty in the 18th century.
During the rise in demand for copper for the Age of Electricity, from the s until the Great Depression of the s, the United States produced one third to half the world's newly mined copper. Introduction of open pit steam shovel mining and innovations in smelting, refining, flotation concentration and other processing steps led to mass production. Early in the twentieth century, Arizona ranked first, followed by Montana , then Utah and Michigan.
The Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries , formed in by Chile, Peru, Zaire and Zambia, operated in the copper market as OPEC does in oil, though it never achieved the same influence, particularly because the second-largest producer, the United States, was never a member; it was dissolved in Despite competition from other materials, copper remains the preferred electrical conductor in nearly all categories of electrical wiring except overhead electric power transmission where aluminium is often preferred.
Roughly half of all copper mined is used for electrical wire and cable conductors. For a short period from the late s to the late s, copper wiring was replaced by aluminium wiring in many housing construction projects in America. The new wiring was implicated in a number of house fires and the industry returned to copper. Integrated circuits and printed circuit boards increasingly feature copper in place of aluminium because of its superior electrical conductivity; heat sinks and heat exchangers use copper because of its superior heat dissipation properties.
Electromagnets , vacuum tubes , cathode ray tubes , and magnetrons in microwave ovens use copper, as do waveguides for microwave radiation. Copper's superior conductivity enhances the efficiency of electrical motors. Copper motor rotors , a new technology designed for motor applications where energy savings are prime design objectives,   are enabling general-purpose induction motors to meet and exceed National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEMA premium efficiency standards. Copper has been used since ancient times as a durable, corrosion resistant , and weatherproof architectural material.
Copper's architectural use has been expanded in modern times to include interior and exterior wall cladding , building expansion joints , radio frequency shielding , and antimicrobial and decorative indoor products such as attractive handrails, bathroom fixtures, and counter tops.
Some of copper's other important benefits as an architectural material include low thermal movement , light weight, lightning protection , and recyclability. The metal's distinctive natural green patina has long been coveted by architects and designers. The final patina is a particularly durable layer that is highly resistant to atmospheric corrosion, thereby protecting the underlying metal against further weathering.
Finishes include mechanical surface treatments, chemical coloring, and coatings. Copper is biostatic , meaning bacteria and many other forms of life will not grow on it. For this reason it has long been used to line parts of ships to protect against barnacles and mussels.
It was originally used pure, but has since been superseded by Muntz metal and copper-based paint. Similarly, as discussed in copper alloys in aquaculture , copper alloys have become important netting materials in the aquaculture industry because they are antimicrobial and prevent biofouling , even in extreme conditions  and have strong structural and corrosion-resistant  properties in marine environments.
Copper-alloy touch surfaces have natural properties that destroy a wide range of microorganisms e. In addition, the EPA has approved a long list of antimicrobial copper products made from these alloys, such as bedrails, handrails , over-bed tables, sinks , faucets , door knobs , toilet hardware, computer keyboards , health club equipment, and shopping cart handles for a comprehensive list, see: Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces Approved products.
Copper doorknobs are used by hospitals to reduce the transfer of disease, and Legionnaires' disease is suppressed by copper tubing in plumbing systems. Copper may be used as a speculative investment due to the predicted increase in use from worldwide infrastructure growth, and the important role it has in producing wind turbines , solar panels , and other renewable energy sources.
Others store physical copper in the form of copper bars or rounds although these tend to carry a higher premium in comparison to precious metals.
Copper is commonly used in jewelry, and according to some folklore, copper bracelets relieve arthritis symptoms. If it were, it might lead to copper poisoning. Recently, some compression clothing with inter-woven copper has been marketed with health claims similar to the folk medicine claims.
Because compression clothing is a valid treatment for some ailments, the clothing may have that benefit, but the added copper may have no benefit beyond a placebo effect. Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas fluorescens can both mobilize solid copper as a cyanide compound. A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution and was found to contain cyano complexes of such metals as gold, silver, copper, iron, and zinc.
The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides. Copper proteins have diverse roles in biological electron transport and oxygen transportation, processes that exploit the easy interconversion of Cu I and Cu II. In mitochondria , it is found in cytochrome c oxidase , which is the last protein in oxidative phosphorylation. Cytochrome c oxidase is the protein that binds the O 2 between a copper and an iron; the protein transfers 8 electrons to the O 2 molecule to reduce it to two molecules of water.
Copper is also found in many superoxide dismutases , proteins that catalyze the decomposition of superoxides by converting it by disproportionation to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide :.
Structurally related to hemocyanin are the laccases and tyrosinases. Instead of reversibly binding oxygen, these proteins hydroxylate substrates, illustrated by their role in the formation of lacquers. These proteins relay electrons by the process called electron transfer.
A unique tetranuclear copper center has been found in nitrous-oxide reductase. Chemical compounds which were developed for treatment of Wilson's disease have been investigated for use in cancer therapy.
Copper is an essential trace element in plants and animals, but not all microorganisms. The human body contains copper at a level of about 1. Copper is absorbed in the gut, then transported to the liver bound to albumin. Ceruloplasmin also carries the copper that is excreted in milk, and is particularly well-absorbed as a copper source. The U. For women and men ages 18 and older the AIs are set at 1. AIs for pregnancy and lactation is 1.
For children ages 1—17 years the AIs increase with age from 0. These AIs are higher than the U. For U. The original deadline to be in compliance was July 28, , but on September 29, the FDA released a proposed rule that extended the deadline to January 1, for large companies and January 1, for small companies.
Because of its role in facilitating iron uptake, copper deficiency can produce anemia -like symptoms, neutropenia , bone abnormalities, hypopigmentation, impaired growth, increased incidence of infections, osteoporosis, hyperthyroidism, and abnormalities in glucose and cholesterol metabolism.
Conversely, Wilson's disease causes an accumulation of copper in body tissues. Severe deficiency can be found by testing for low plasma or serum copper levels, low ceruloplasmin, and low red blood cell superoxide dismutase levels; these are not sensitive to marginal copper status. Gram quantities of various copper salts have been taken in suicide attempts and produced acute copper toxicity in humans, possibly due to redox cycling and the generation of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA.
Chronic copper toxicity does not normally occur in humans because of transport systems that regulate absorption and excretion. Autosomal recessive mutations in copper transport proteins can disable these systems, leading to Wilson's disease with copper accumulation and cirrhosis of the liver in persons who have inherited two defective genes. Elevated copper levels have also been linked to worsening symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
Copper is a constituent of tobacco smoke. These are readily absorbed into the user's body following smoke inhalation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Copper disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of copper. See also: Copper ores. See also: List of countries by copper production. Main article: Copper extraction techniques. See also: List of copper alloys. Main article: Organocopper compound. Main article: Copper Age.
Main article: Bronze Age. See also: Copper in renewable energy. Main article: Copper wire and cable. Main article: Copper in architecture. Main articles: Copper alloys in aquaculture and Copper sheathing. Main articles: Antimicrobial properties of copper and Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces.
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The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. A mathematical model that describes the conversion and the temperature profile trough time of a copper-based oxygen-carrier particle was developed. The model describes the reaction rate based on an initial distribution of grain, permitting a better adjustment to the experimental data than the classic changing grain size model and it can be used to modeling the chemical looping combustion process at real scale.
On other hand, two oxygen carriers were synthesized using wet-impregnation and incipient impregnation techniques, and they were characterized with scanning electron microscopy SEM , energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDX , BET superficial area, porosimetry, and X-ray diffraction XRD.
Kinetic parameters of the synthesized materials were calculated by thermogravimetry. View Author Information. Cite this: Energy Fuels 28 8 Article Views Altmetric -. Citations Abstract A mathematical model that describes the conversion and the temperature profile trough time of a copper-based oxygen-carrier particle was developed. Cited By. This article is cited by 11 publications. DOI: Grasa, R. Fuel , , Murillo, M. Martini, F. Gallucci, M. Juan C. Maya, Farid Chejne, Suresh K.
Effect of sintering on the reactivity of copper-based oxygen carriers synthesized by impregnation. Chemical Engineering Science , , Maximilian A. Oxidation of copper at high temperature as an example for gas-solid reactions in a downer reactor — experiments and model-based analysis.
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